Chapter 10: Human Development Across The Life Span

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Psych Test 2; Chapter 10 Of Weiten Text

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development
 
the sequence of age-related changes that occur as a person progresses from conception to death
zygote
 
a one-celled organism formed by the union of a sperm and an egg
prenatal period
 
exents from conception to birth, usually encompassing nine months of pregnancy
germinal stage
 
the first phase of prenatal development, encompassing the first two weeks after conception
placenta
 
a structure that allows oxygen and nutrients to pass into the fetus from the mother's bloodstream and bodily wastes to pass out to the mother
fetal stage
 
the third stage of prenatal development, lasting from two months through birth
age of viability
 
the age at which a baby can survive in the event of a premature birth
fetal alcohol syndrome
 
a collection of congenital (inborn) problems associated with excessive alcohol use during pregnancy
motor development
 
refers to the progression of muscular coordination required for physical activities
cephalocaudal trend
 
the head-to-foot direction of motor development
proximodistal trend
 
the center-outward direction of motor development
maturation
 
development that reflects the gradual unfolding of one's genetic blueprint
developmental norms
 
indicate the typical (median) age at which individuals display various behaviors and abilities
attachment
 
refers to the close emotional bonds of affection that develop between infants and their caregivers
separation anxiety
 
emotional distress seen in many infants when they are separated from people with whom they have formed an attachment
fast mapping
 
the process by which children map a word onto an underlying concept after only one exposure
overextension
 
occurs when a child incorrectly uses a word to describe a wider set of objects or actions than it is meant to
underextensions
 
occur when a child incorrectly uses a word to describe a narrower set of objects or actions than it is meant to
telegraphic speech
 
consists mainly of content words; articles, prepositions, and other less critical words are omitted
overregularizations
 
occur when grammatical rules are incorrectly generalized to irregular cases where they do not apply
stage
 
a developmental period during which characteristic patterns of behavior are exhibited and certain capacities become established
cognitive development
 
refers to transitions in youngsters' patterns of thinking, including reasoning, remembering, and problem solving
object permanence
 
develops when a child recognizes that objects continue to exist even when they are no longer visible
conservation
 
Piaget's term for the awareness that physical quantities remain constant in spits of changes in their shape or appearance
centration
 
the tendency to focus on just one feature of a problem, neglecting other important aspects
irreversibility
 
the inability to envision reversing an action
egocentrism
 
thinking is characterized by a limited ability to share another person's viewpoint
animism
 
the belief that all things are living
secondary sex characteristics
 
physical features that distinguish one sex from the other but that are not essential for reproduction
puberty
 
the stage during which sexual functions reach maturity, which marks the beginning of adolescence
primary sex characteristics
 
the structures necessary for reproduction
menarche
 
the first occurrence of menstration
spermarche
 
the first occurence of ejaculation
dementia
 
an abnormal condition marked by multiple cognitive deficits that include memory impairment
fluid intelligence
 
involves basic reasoning ability, memory capacity, and sppeed of information processing
crystallized intelligence
 
involves the ability to apply acquired knowledge and skills in problem solving
sex
 
refers to the biologically based categories of female and male
gender
 
refers to culturally constructed distinctions between femininity and masculinity
gender stereotypes
 
widely held beliefs about females' and males' abilities, personality traits, and social behavior
gender differences
 
actual disparities between the sexes in typical behavior or average ability
gender roles
 
expectations about what is appropriate behavior for each sex