Chapter 10 - The Nervous System

Medical Terminology - Chapter 10 - The Nervous System
Created Apr 13, 2011
by blue_dolphin1222
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caus/o
burning, burn
concuss/o
shaken together, violently agitated
contus/o
bruise
encephal/o
brain
-esthesia
sensation, feeling
esthet/o
feeling, nervous sensation, sense of perception
-graphy
the process of producing a picture or record
klept/o
to steal
-mania
obsessive preoccupation
mening/o
membranes, meninges
myel/o
spinal cord, bone marrow
neur/i, neur/o
nerve, nerve tissue
-phobia
abnormal fear
psych/o
mind
-tropic
having an affinity for
acrophobiaacr/o = top; -phobia = abnormal fear
an excessive fear of being in high places
Alzheimer's disease
a group of disorders involving the parts of the brain that control thought, memory, & language;...
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease)
rapidly progressive neurological disease that attacks the nerve cells responsible for controlling...
anesthetican- = without; esthet = feeling; -ic = pertaining to
the medication used to induce anesthesia; the anesthetic may be topical, local, regional, or...
anesthetistan- = without; esthet = feeling; -ist = specialist
a medical professional who specializes in administering anesthesia, but is not a physician;...
anxiety disorders
mental conditions characterized by excessive, irrational dread of everyday situations, or fear...
autism (autistic disorders)
a group of conditions in which a young child can't develop normal social relationships, compulsively...
Bell's palsy
the temporary paralysis of the 7th cranial nerve that causes paralysis only of the affected...
carotid ultrasonographyultra- = beyond; son/o = sound; -graphy = process of producing a picture...
ultrasound study of the carotid artery; diagnostic test is performed to detect plaque buildup...
causalgiacaus = burning; -algia = pain
persistent, severe burning pain that usually follows an injury to a sensory nerve
cerebral contusionconcuss = shaken together; -ion = condition or state of
the bruising of brain tissue as the result of head injury that causes the brain to bounce against...
cerebral palsy
condition characterized by poor muscle control, spasticity, speech defects, & other neurologic...
cerebrovascular accident (stroke or CVA)
damage to the brain that occurs when the blood flow to the brain is disrupted because a blood...
cervical radiculopathyradicul/o = nerve root; -pathy = disease
is nerve pain caused by pressure on the spinal nerve roots in the neck region
claustrophobiaclaustr/o = barrier; -phobia = abnormal fear
an abnormal fear of being in narrow or enclosed spaces
cognition
describes the mental activities associated with thinking, learning, and memory
coma
a profound (deep) state of unconsciousness marked by the absence of spontaneous eye movements,...
concussionconcuss = shaken together; -ion = condition or state of
a violent shaking up or jarring of the brain; may result in a temporary loss of awareness...
cranial hematomahemat = blood; -oma = tumor
a collection of blood trapped in the tissues of the brain
delirium
an acute condition of confusion, disorientation, disordered thinking & memory, agitation...
delirium tremens
a disorder involving sudden & severe mental changes or seizures caused by abruptly stopping...
delusion
a false personal belief that is maintained despite obvious proof or evidence to the contrary;...
dementia
a slowly progressive decline in mental abilities, including memory, thinking, & judgment;...
dura materdura = hard; mater = mother
the thick, tough, outermost membrane of the meninges; inner surface of cranium is lined w/...
dyslexia (developmental reading disorder)
a learning disability characterized by substandard reading achievement due to the inability...
echoencephalographyech/o = sound; encephal/o = brain; -graphy = process of producing a picture...
is the use of ultrasound imaging to diagnose a shift in the midline structures of the brain
electroencephalographyelectr/o = electric
the process of recording the electrical activity of the brain through the use of electrodes...
encephalitisencelphal = brain; -itis = inflammation
an inflammation of the brain, can be caused by a viral infection such as rabies* compare w/...
epidural anesthesia
regional anesthesia produced by injecting a local anesthetic into the epidural space of the...
epilepsy (seizure disorder)
a chronic neurological condition characterized by recurrent episodes of seizures of varying...
factitious disorder
a condition in which an individual acts as if he or she has a physical or mental illness when...
Guillain-Barre syndrome (infectious polyneuritis)
an inflammation of the myelin sheath of peripheral nerves, characterized by rapidly worsening...
hallucination
is a sensory perception (sight, touch, sound, smell, or taste) experienced in the absence of...
hemorrhagic stroke (bleed)
occurs when a blood vessel in the brain leaks; a bleed also occurs when an aneurysm with the...
hydrocephalushydr/o = water; cephal = head; -us = singular noun ending
a condition in which excess cerebrospinal fluid accumulates in the ventricles of the brain;...
hyperesthesiahyper- = excessive; -esthesia = sensation or feeling
a condition of abnormal and excessive sensitivity to touch, pain, or other sensory stimuli
hypochondriasis
is characterized by fearing that one has a serious illness despite appropriate medical evaluation...
ischemic stroke
the most common type of stroke in older people, occurs when the flow of blood to the brain...
lethargy
is a lowered level of consciousness marked by listlessness, drowsiness, & apathy
meningitismening = meninges; -itis = inflammation
an inflammation of the meninges of the brain & spinal cord; can be fatal, usually caused...
meningocelemening/o = meninges; -cele = hernia
the congenital herniation of the meninges through a defect in the skull or spinal column; compare...
migraine headache
can be preceded by a warning aura, characterized by throbbing pain on one side of the head
multiple sclerosis
a progressive autoimmune disorder characterized by inflammation that causes demyelination of...
myelitismyel = spinal cord & bone marrow; -itis = inflammation
an inflammation of the spinal cord; also means inflammation of bone marrow
myelography
a radiographic study of the spinal cord after the injection of a contrast medium through a...
narcolepsynarc/o = stupor; -lepsy = seizure
a sleep disorder consisting of sudden & uncontrollable brief episodes of falling asleep...
neurostransmitters
chemical substances that make it possible for messages to cross from the synapse of a neuron...
obsessive-compulsive disorder
an axiety disorder characterized by recurrent, unwanted obsessions and/or recurrent compulsions
panic attack
characterized by a group of intense emotional feelings that include apprehension, fearfulness,...
paresthesiapar- = abnormal; -esthesia = sensation or feeling
refers to a burning or prickling sensation that is usually felt in the hands, arms, legs, or...
Parkinson's disease (PD)
a chronic, degenerative central nervous disorder characterized by fine muscle tremors,...
peripheral neuropathy (peripheral neuritis)
a disorder of the nerves that carry information to & from the brain and spinal cord; produces...
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
may develop after an event involving actual or threatened death or injury to the individual...
Reye's syndrome (RS)
a potentially serious or deadly disorder in children that is characterized by vomiting &...
schizophrenia
a psychotic disorder usually characterized by withdrawal from reality, illogical patterns of...
sciatica
inflammation of the sciatic nerve that results in pain, burning, & tingling along the course...
shaken baby syndrome
describes the results of a child being violently shaken by someone; action can cause brain...
syncope (fainting)
the brief loss of consciousness caused by the decreased flow of blood to the brain
trichotillomaniatrichotill/o = related to hair; -mania = madness
a disorder characterized by the repeated pulling out of one's own hair
trigeminal neuralgia
characterized by severe lightning-like pain due to an inflammation of the 5th cranial nerve;...


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