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Chapter 10 - The Nervous System


Medical Terminology - Chapter 10 - The Nervous System
  
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caus/o
 
burning, burn
concuss/o
 
shaken together, violently agitated
contus/o
 
bruise
encephal/o
 
brain
-esthesia
 
sensation, feeling
esthet/o
 
feeling, nervous sensation, sense of perception
-graphy
 
the process of producing a picture or record
klept/o
 
to steal
-mania
 
obsessive preoccupation
mening/o
 
membranes, meninges
myel/o
 
spinal cord, bone marrow
neur/i, neur/o
 
nerve, nerve tissue
-phobia
 
abnormal fear
psych/o
 
mind
-tropic
 
having an affinity for
acrophobiaacr/o = top; -phobia = abnormal fear
 
an excessive fear of being in high places
Alzheimer's disease
 
a group of disorders involving the parts of the brain that control thought, memory, & language; marked by progressive deterioration that affects both memory & reasoning capabilities of an individual
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease)
 
rapidly progressive neurological disease that attacks the nerve cells responsible for controlling voluntary muscles; patients affected become weaker until completely paralyzed & die
anesthetican- = without; esthet = feeling; -ic = pertaining to
 
the medication used to induce anesthesia; the anesthetic may be topical, local, regional, or general
anesthetistan- = without; esthet = feeling; -ist = specialist
 
a medical professional who specializes in administering anesthesia, but is not a physician; example = nurse anesthetist
anxiety disorders
 
mental conditions characterized by excessive, irrational dread of everyday situations, or fear that's out of proportion to the real danger in a situation
autism (autistic disorders)
 
a group of conditions in which a young child can't develop normal social relationships, compulsively follows repetitive routines, & frequently has poor communication skills
Bell's palsy
 
the temporary paralysis of the 7th cranial nerve that causes paralysis only of the affected side of face
carotid ultrasonographyultra- = beyond; son/o = sound; -graphy = process of producing a picture or record
 
ultrasound study of the carotid artery; diagnostic test is performed to detect plaque buildup in the artery to predict or diagnose an ischemic stroke
causalgiacaus = burning; -algia = pain
 
persistent, severe burning pain that usually follows an injury to a sensory nerve
cerebral contusionconcuss = shaken together; -ion = condition or state of
 
the bruising of brain tissue as the result of head injury that causes the brain to bounce against the rigid bone of the skull
cerebral palsy
 
condition characterized by poor muscle control, spasticity, speech defects, & other neurologic deficiencies due to damage that affects cerebrum
cerebrovascular accident (stroke or CVA)
 
damage to the brain that occurs when the blood flow to the brain is disrupted because a blood vessel is either blocked or has ruptured
cervical radiculopathyradicul/o = nerve root; -pathy = disease
 
is nerve pain caused by pressure on the spinal nerve roots in the neck region
claustrophobiaclaustr/o = barrier; -phobia = abnormal fear
 
an abnormal fear of being in narrow or enclosed spaces
cognition
 
describes the mental activities associated with thinking, learning, and memory
coma
 
a profound (deep) state of unconsciousness marked by the absence of spontaneous eye movements, no response to painful stimuli, & the lack of speech
concussionconcuss = shaken together; -ion = condition or state of
 
a violent shaking up or jarring of the brain; may result in a temporary loss of awareness & function
cranial hematomahemat = blood; -oma = tumor
 
a collection of blood trapped in the tissues of the brain
delirium
 
an acute condition of confusion, disorientation, disordered thinking & memory, agitation & hallucinations
delirium tremens
 
a disorder involving sudden & severe mental changes or seizures caused by abruptly stopping the use of alcohol
delusion
 
a false personal belief that is maintained despite obvious proof or evidence to the contrary; belief is not ordinarily accepted by other members of the individual's culture or religious faith
dementia
 
a slowly progressive decline in mental abilities, including memory, thinking, & judgment; is often accompanied by personality changes
dura materdura = hard; mater = mother
 
the thick, tough, outermost membrane of the meninges; inner surface of cranium is lined w/ dura mater
dyslexia (developmental reading disorder)
 
a learning disability characterized by substandard reading achievement due to the inability of the brain to process symbols
echoencephalographyech/o = sound; encephal/o = brain; -graphy = process of producing a picture or record
 
is the use of ultrasound imaging to diagnose a shift in the midline structures of the brain
electroencephalographyelectr/o = electric
 
the process of recording the electrical activity of the brain through the use of electrodes attached to the scalp
encephalitisencelphal = brain; -itis = inflammation
 
an inflammation of the brain, can be caused by a viral infection such as rabies* compare w/ meningitis
epidural anesthesia
 
regional anesthesia produced by injecting a local anesthetic into the epidural space of the lumbar or sacral region of spine
epilepsy (seizure disorder)
 
a chronic neurological condition characterized by recurrent episodes of seizures of varying severity; can usually be controlled w/ medication
factitious disorder
 
a condition in which an individual acts as if he or she has a physical or mental illness when he/she is not really sick
Guillain-Barre syndrome (infectious polyneuritis)
 
an inflammation of the myelin sheath of peripheral nerves, characterized by rapidly worsening muscle weakness that can lead to temporary paralysis
hallucination
 
is a sensory perception (sight, touch, sound, smell, or taste) experienced in the absence of an external stimulation
hemorrhagic stroke (bleed)
 
occurs when a blood vessel in the brain leaks; a bleed also occurs when an aneurysm with the brain ruptures
hydrocephalushydr/o = water; cephal = head; -us = singular noun ending
 
a condition in which excess cerebrospinal fluid accumulates in the ventricles of the brain; can occur at birth or develop later in life
hyperesthesiahyper- = excessive; -esthesia = sensation or feeling
 
a condition of abnormal and excessive sensitivity to touch, pain, or other sensory stimuli
hypochondriasis
 
is characterized by fearing that one has a serious illness despite appropriate medical evaluation & reassurance
ischemic stroke
 
the most common type of stroke in older people, occurs when the flow of blood to the brain in blocked
lethargy
 
is a lowered level of consciousness marked by listlessness, drowsiness, & apathy
meningitismening = meninges; -itis = inflammation
 
an inflammation of the meninges of the brain & spinal cord; can be fatal, usually caused by a bacterial or viral infection
meningocelemening/o = meninges; -cele = hernia
 
the congenital herniation of the meninges through a defect in the skull or spinal column; compare w/ encephalocele
migraine headache
 
can be preceded by a warning aura, characterized by throbbing pain on one side of the head
multiple sclerosis
 
a progressive autoimmune disorder characterized by inflammation that causes demyelination of the myelin sheath
myelitismyel = spinal cord & bone marrow; -itis = inflammation
 
an inflammation of the spinal cord; also means inflammation of bone marrow
myelography
 
a radiographic study of the spinal cord after the injection of a contrast medium through a lumbar puncture
narcolepsynarc/o = stupor; -lepsy = seizure
 
a sleep disorder consisting of sudden & uncontrollable brief episodes of falling asleep during the day
neurostransmitters
 
chemical substances that make it possible for messages to cross from the synapse of a neuron to the target receptor; 200 - 300 neurotransmitters
obsessive-compulsive disorder
 
an axiety disorder characterized by recurrent, unwanted obsessions and/or recurrent compulsions
panic attack
 
characterized by a group of intense emotional feelings that include apprehension, fearfulness, & terror; emotions accomp. by physical symptoms
paresthesiapar- = abnormal; -esthesia = sensation or feeling
 
refers to a burning or prickling sensation that is usually felt in the hands, arms, legs, or feet, but can also occur in other parts of the body
Parkinson's disease (PD)
 
a chronic, degenerative central nervous disorder characterized by fine muscle tremors, rigidity, & a slow or shuffling gait
peripheral neuropathy (peripheral neuritis)
 
a disorder of the nerves that carry information to & from the brain and spinal cord; produces pain, loss of sensation, & inability to control muscles
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
 
may develop after an event involving actual or threatened death or injury to the individual or someone else, during which the person felt intense fear, helplessness, or horror
Reye's syndrome (RS)
 
a potentially serious or deadly disorder in children that is characterized by vomiting & confusion
schizophrenia
 
a psychotic disorder usually characterized by withdrawal from reality, illogical patterns of thinking, delusions, & hallucinations
sciatica
 
inflammation of the sciatic nerve that results in pain, burning, & tingling along the course of the affected sciatic nerve through thigh, leg, & foot
shaken baby syndrome
 
describes the results of a child being violently shaken by someone; action can cause brain injury, blindness, fractures, seizures, paralysis, & death
syncope (fainting)
 
the brief loss of consciousness caused by the decreased flow of blood to the brain
trichotillomaniatrichotill/o = related to hair; -mania = madness
 
a disorder characterized by the repeated pulling out of one's own hair
trigeminal neuralgia
 
characterized by severe lightning-like pain due to an inflammation of the 5th cranial nerve; affect the cheek, lips, & gums on side of face innervated by the affected nerve

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