Chapter 1: Race And Ethnicity

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Chapter 1: Race And Ethnicity

 Race An D Ethnic

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Minority Group
 
Subordinate group whose members have significantly less control or power over their
own lives than do the members of the dominant/majority group
Characteristics (5): unequal treatment, distinguishing physical or cultural traits,
involuntary membership, awareness of subordination, in-group marriage
Racial Group
 
Group that is socially set apart because of obvious physical differences
Ethnic Groups
 
Group set apart from others because of its national origin or distinctive cultural patterns Differences: language, attitudes towards marriage/parenting, food habits
Biological Race
 
Mistaken notion of a genetically isolated (perfect/pure) human group
Racism
 
A doctrine that one race is superior
Racial Formation
 
Sociohistorical process by which racial categroies are created, inhibited, transformed, and destryed
Sociology
 
Systematic study of social behavior and human groups
Stratification
 
Structured ranking of entire groupd of people that perpetuates unequal rewards and power in a society Indentifies class (social ranking) of people due to wealth
Functionalist Persoective
 
Sociological approach emphaizing how parts of a society are structured to maintain its Stability
Conflict Perspective
 
Sociological approach that assumes that the social structure is best understood in terms of conflict or tension between competing groups
Dysfunction
 
An element of a society that may distupt a social system or decreases its stability
Blaming the Victim
 
Portraying the problems of racial and ethnic minorities as their fault rather than recognizing society's responsibilites
Labeling Theory
 
Sociological approach, by Howard Becher, attempts to explain why certain people are viewed as deviants and others engaging in the same behaviors are not people who do bad do it because from "wrong of family"
Stereotypes
 
Unreliable, exaggerated generalizations about all members of a group that do not take into account individual differences
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
 
In certain situations, people may respond to negative stereotypes and act on them, resulting with the false definition becoming accurate A person or group described as having particular characteristics begins to display very traits attributed to them Can create viscous circle
Migration
 
Transfer of population
Emigration
 
(by emigrants) leaving a country
Immigration
 
(By immigrants) coming to a new country as a permanent resident
Globalization
 
Worldwilde integration of government policies, cultures, social movements, and financial markets Through: trade, movement of peiokem and exchange of ideas
Colonialism
 
Foreign power's maintenance of political, social, economic, and cultural dominance over people for an extended period
World System Theory
 
View of global economic system as divided between nations that control wealth and those that provide national resources and labor
Internal Colonialism
 
Treatment of subordinate peoples as colonel subjects by those in power
Genocide
 
Deliberate, systematic killing of an entire people or nation
Ethnic Cleansing
 
forced deportation of peoplem accompanied by systematic violence From: 1992--ethnic Serbs tried eliminating Muslims from parts of Bosnia
Segregation
 
Physical seperation of two groups, often imposed on a subordinate group by the dominant group
Resegregation
 
Physical separation of racial and ethnic groups reappearing after a period of relative integration
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