Chapter 1: Race And Ethnicity

 Race An D Ethnic
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Minority Group
Subordinate group whose members have significantly less control or power over their
own lives than do the members of the dominant/majority group
Characteristics (5): unequal treatment, distinguishing physical or cultural traits,
involuntary membership, awareness of subordination, in-group marriage
Racial Group
Group that is socially set apart because of obvious physical differences
Ethnic Groups

Group set apart from others because of its national origin or distinctive cultural patterns
Differences: language, attitudes towards marriage/parenting, food habits
Biological Race
Mistaken notion of a genetically isolated (perfect/pure) human group
A doctrine that one race is superior
Racial Formation
Sociohistorical process by which racial categroies are created, inhibited, transformed, and destryed
Systematic study of social behavior and human groups

Structured ranking of entire groupd of people that perpetuates unequal rewards and power in a society
Indentifies class (social ranking) of people due to wealth
Functionalist Persoective

Sociological approach emphaizing how parts of a society are structured to maintain its Stability
Conflict Perspective

Sociological approach that assumes that the social structure is best understood in terms of conflict or tension between competing groups


An element of a society that may distupt a social system or decreases its stability
Blaming the Victim
Portraying the problems of racial and ethnic minorities as their fault rather than recognizing society's responsibilites
Labeling Theory

Sociological approach, by Howard Becher, attempts to explain why certain people are viewed as deviants and others engaging in the same behaviors are not
people who do bad do it because from "wrong of family"
Unreliable, exaggerated generalizations about all members of a group that do not take into account individual differences
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

In certain situations, people may respond to negative stereotypes and act on them, resulting with the false definition becoming accurate
A person or group described as having particular characteristics begins to display very traits attributed to them
Can create viscous circle
Transfer of population
(by emigrants) leaving a country
(By immigrants) coming to a new country as a permanent resident

Worldwilde integration of government policies, cultures, social movements, and financial markets
Through: trade, movement of peiokem and exchange of ideas
Foreign power's maintenance of political, social, economic, and cultural dominance over people for an extended period
World System Theory
View of global economic system as divided between nations that control wealth and those that provide national resources and labor
Internal Colonialism
Treatment of subordinate peoples as colonel subjects by those in power

Deliberate, systematic killing of an entire people or nation
Ethnic Cleansing

forced deportation of peoplem accompanied by systematic violence
From: 1992--ethnic Serbs tried eliminating Muslims from parts of Bosnia
Physical seperation of two groups, often imposed on a subordinate group by the dominant group
Physical separation of racial and ethnic groups reappearing after a period of relative integration

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