Ch 8 Minerals: Visualizing Nutritio

FSHN 185 Minerals Flashcards.
Created Apr 1, 2011
by kcoburn
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Mineral BioavailabilityDecrease: F_____ p______ Ox______Mineral-______interactions              ...
Decrease: Fiber and phytate, OxalatesMineral-mineral interactions              ...
Minerals Most Likely to be Deficient in N. America
CalciumIronZinc
Major functions of minerals F E A S BL
Fluid balanceEnergy MetabolismAntioxidants Structure (bones)Blood components
Fluid Balance: Four components? S C P P What  are Sources of each? Purpose of each?
SodiumTable salt (NaCl):40% sodium, 60% chlorideMajor (+) ion, extracellular fluidChlorideTable...
Food Manufactures Vs. Home Cooked:How does sodium chloride get into our food? (%)
Where does it come from?~15% added by individuals~10% naturally occurring in foods~ 75% added...
What minerals contribute to Structure (Bones)? What are they found in?
CalciumMakes up 40% of all the mineral present in the bodyHas many functions in addition to...
Calcium / Bone Mass Facts: Peak mass age? Loss begins age? Major bone mass loss called?...
Peak bone mass: age 20-30Bone loss begins: age 30-40Significant loss at menopauseOsteoporosisPoor...
Calcium Absorption: Enhancers / InhibitorsBest source of calcium?
AbsorptionEnhancersVitamin D, stomach acidInhibitorsPhytates, oxalates, tanninsDairy is best...
Vegetarianism and calcium: challenges & tipsChallenge: Difficult to ____  ____ without...
Challenge: Difficult to meet needs without dairySome plant sources are poorly absorbedTips:...
Sulfur controls _____ base balance. Source? Component of?
Acid-base balanceSource: food proteinsComponent of body protein
Two types of bones:
Cortical or compact boneTrabecular or spongy bone
Bone is composed of:
a protein frame work, or matrix, hardened by deposits of minerals
___________  is the most abundant protein_____________  is the calcium-phosphorus...
Collagen is the most abundant proteinHydroxyapatite is the calcium-phosphorus crystal
Two types of iron in the diet? Each comes from where?
Heme iron: part of hemoglobin and myoglobin in animal products. Heme iron is absorbed more...
Map basic chemical structure of heme iron.

Fe chem structure
Map path of HEME iron in digestive track

HEME path: a HEME group is absorbed in small intestine (lumen) at Mucosal wall. Breaks down...
Absorption of nonheme iron is affected by many factors
Fiber, phytates, tannins, and oxalates bind to iron in the GI tract and reduce absorptionThe...
Map path of NON-HEME iron in digestive track
Non-heme iron enters the mucosal cell as Fe2+. Some is lost as mucosal cell is sloughed off....
Regulation of iron transportation
*Absorbed iron is bound to storage protein ferritin or picked up by the transport protein transferrin*The...
Iron stores and Iron losses:
Iron storesIn ferritin in the liver, spleen, and bone marrowHigh levels of liver ferritin can...
Functions of iron O N C E
*Delivery of OXYGENto cells via two oxygen-carrying proteins hemoglobin and myoglobin*NEUROtransmitter...
Iron is in 3 locations in the body: The iron stores, the plasma and the red blood cells. In...
First, the iron stores get low. Second, iron is diminished in the plasma and you have low levels...
Symptoms of Iron deficiency anemia
Fatigue and weaknessCannot maintain body temperatureChange in mental/emotional stateProne to...
Groups at most risk for Iron deficiency anemia?
Infants, children, adolescentsWomen of reproductive agePregnant womenAthletes
Iron toxicity: acute v. chronic
Acute toxicityIngestion of a single large dose at one timeChronic toxicity*Caused by iron overload*Most...
Iron deficiency and iron excess damage ______________and _____________  _____ in rats....
Iron deficiency and iron excess damage mitochondriaand mitochondrial DNA in rats.
Meeting Iron need: you must consider the TOTAL diet to avoid excess or under consumption:Best...
Best sources are red meats and organ meats (heme)Bioavailability for heme sources: 15 to 35%...
RDA for IRON:_______ for adult men and _________ for adult womenVegetarians – ________ ...
8 mg/day for adult men and 18 mg/day for adult womenVegetarians – 14 mg/day for adult men...
ZINCThe most ______intracellular trace elementInvolved in functions of over 300 _____Important...
The most abundant intracellular trace elementInvolved in functions of over 300 enzymes Important...
Zinc from  _________     _____ is better absorbed because zinc in...
Zinc from animal food is better absorbed because zinc in plant sources is often bound by phytates
FunctionEnzyme ______Synthesis of ______ToxicityInterferes with _____ metabolism__ symptoms
FunctionEnzyme cofactorSynthesis of DNA/RNAToxicityInterferes with copper metabolismGI symptoms
Zinc Deficiency =
Poor growthInadequate sexual developmentMost common in underdeveloped countries
3 Sources of Zinc
Animal productsFortified cerealsLegumes
Zinc RDA: Men, women and vegetarians?
11 mg/day for men 8 mg/day for women (11 mg/day during pregnancy)Vegetarians – require ~...
Iodine function:
Main component of Thyroid hormones Regulates growth and metabolism
Iodine deficiency causes _____ and ______. Iodine deficiency is the most well documented ____...
Goiter- enlargement of thyroidCretinism- stunting of fetal growth and mental development Most...
Source of iodine?
Major source = Iodized saltAlso found in seafood and Foods grown in soil with adequate iodine
Other minerals which function as cofactors are: (these are important minerals, but we don't...
Copper (Legumes, whole grains, nuts, shellfish, seeds)Chromium (Egg yolks, whole grains)Manganese...
Fluoride: function and deficiency?
FunctionReduces acid production by mouth bacteriaImproves tooth and bone strengthDeficiencyTooth...
Toxicities in:Fluoride (3x RDA)Tooth ______ during developmentCalcium (2x RDA)Kidney _____,...
Fluoride (3x RDA)Tooth mottling during developmentCalcium (2x RDA)Kidney stones, calcification...
4 Contaminant Minerals: Their sources?
Lead (Pb)Cadmium (Cd)Mercury (Hg)Arsenic (As)Often in nonfood sources, environmental contamination...
Supplements are ____ necessary if you are consuming a balanced diet. What four situation are...
VeganPregnancyFood allergy/intoleranceLow kcal intake (esp elderly)
The bioavialability of supplements may be poor because of these two factors: Also, this type...
Vitamin-vitamin interactionsMineral-mineral interactionsMegadose
In General:* ________ increases blood pressure ( _____ retention leads to increased blood volume_________...
In General:* Sodium increases blood pressure (Fluid retention leads to increased blood volume)Potassium...
Name one mineral present in the following hamburger components: Whole wheat bunRomaine lettuce...
Whole wheat bunRomaine lettuce (dark green leaf)TomatoCheeseGround beef patty
Which minerals are major minerals?Which mineral is most abundant in the body?Which minerals...
outta time...
What are good sources of…IronCalciumSulfurMagnesiumZincIodideSodiumChloridePotassium
outta time...


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