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Side ASide B
Mineral BioavailabilityDecrease: F_____ p______ Ox______Mineral-______interactions EX: calcium...
Decrease: Fiber and phytate, OxalatesMineral-mineral interactions EX: calcium and ironEnhance:Vitamin-mineral...
Minerals Most Likely to be Deficient in N. America
Major functions of minerals F E A S BL
Fluid balanceEnergy MetabolismAntioxidants Structure (bones)Blood components
Fluid Balance: Four components? S C P P What are Sources of each? Purpose of each?
SodiumTable salt (NaCl):40% sodium, 60% chlorideMajor (+) ion, extracellular fluidChlorideTable saltMajor (-) ion, extracellular fluidPotassiumFruits, vegetables, milk, grains, meats,...
Food Manufactures Vs. Home Cooked:How does sodium chloride get into our food? (%)
Where does it come from?~15% added by individuals~10% naturally occurring in foods~ 75% added by food manufacturers
What minerals contribute to Structure (Bones)? What are they found in?
CalciumMakes up 40% of all the mineral present in the bodyHas many functions in addition to bonesMagnesiumPlant products: legumes, seeds, nuts, whole grains, vegetablesFluorideToothpaste,...
Calcium / Bone Mass Facts: Peak mass age? Loss begins age? Major bone mass loss called? What is is? Who / what increased risk?
Peak bone mass: age 20-30Bone loss begins: age 30-40Significant loss at menopauseOsteoporosisPoor bone structureHigh risk: female, small frame, old age, low calcium intake, smoking,...
Calcium Absorption: Enhancers / InhibitorsBest source of calcium?
AbsorptionEnhancersVitamin D, stomach acidInhibitorsPhytates, oxalates, tanninsDairy is best source of Calcium
Vegetarianism and calcium: challenges & tipsChallenge: Difficult to ____ ____ without ____.Some _____ sources are poorly absorbedTips: Choose ________foodsDairy...
Challenge: Difficult to meet needs without dairySome plant sources are poorly absorbedTips: Choose fortified foodsDairy substitutesTofu (some types)Some RTE cereals, snacksSome green...
Sulfur controls _____ base balance. Source? Component of?
Acid-base balanceSource: food proteinsComponent of body protein
Two types of bones:
Cortical or compact boneTrabecular or spongy bone
Bone is composed of:
a protein frame work, or matrix, hardened by deposits of minerals
___________ is the most abundant protein_____________ is the calcium-phosphorus crystal
Collagen is the most abundant proteinHydroxyapatite is the calcium-phosphorus crystal
Two types of iron in the diet? Each comes from where?
Heme iron: part of hemoglobin and myoglobin in animal products. Heme iron is absorbed more efficiently and less affected by other dietary factorsNonheme iron: in plant foods and...
Map basic chemical structure of heme iron.
Fe chem structure
Map path of HEME iron in digestive track
HEME path: a HEME group is absorbed in small intestine (lumen) at Mucosal wall. Breaks down into "breakdown products" and Fe2+.... Fe2+ joins Ferritin within the mucosal cell to become...
Absorption of nonheme iron is affected by many factors
Fiber, phytates, tannins, and oxalates bind to iron in the GI tract and reduce absorptionThe presence of other minerals in a meal can decrease iron absorption (esp. calcium)
Map path of NON-HEME iron in digestive track
Non-heme iron enters the mucosal cell as Fe2+. Some is lost as mucosal cell is sloughed off. Some is retained and joins Ferritin to become Fe3+. Fe3+ joins with a CU-containing...
Regulation of iron transportation
*Absorbed iron is bound to storage protein ferritin or picked up by the transport protein transferrin*The transferrin-iron complex binds to transferrin receptors to deliver iron into...
Iron stores and Iron losses:
Iron storesIn ferritin in the liver, spleen, and bone marrowHigh levels of liver ferritin can be converted to hemosiderinIron lossesThe body recycles ironBlood loss and shedding of...
Functions of iron O N C E
*Delivery of OXYGENto cells via two oxygen-carrying proteins hemoglobin and myoglobin*NEUROtransmitter synthesis in brain*Normal immune function and drug metabolism*CO-factor for enzymes...
Iron is in 3 locations in the body: The iron stores, the plasma and the red blood cells. In what order does iron "disappear" from these locations when iron intake is inadequate?
First, the iron stores get low. Second, iron is diminished in the plasma and you have low levels of circulating iron. Last, Iron begins to be missing from the red blood cells and you...
Symptoms of Iron deficiency anemia
Fatigue and weaknessCannot maintain body temperatureChange in mental/emotional stateProne to infectionAdverse pregnancy outcomesImpaired developmentPica? Ice crunch craving
Groups at most risk for Iron deficiency anemia?
Infants, children, adolescentsWomen of reproductive agePregnant womenAthletes
Iron toxicity: acute v. chronic
Acute toxicityIngestion of a single large dose at one timeChronic toxicity*Caused by iron overload*Most common cause is hemochromatosis*Overconsumption of iron supplements or diet high...
Iron deficiency and iron excess damage ______________and _____________ _____ in rats.
Iron deficiency and iron excess damage mitochondriaand mitochondrial DNA in rats.
Meeting Iron need: you must consider the TOTAL diet to avoid excess or under consumption:Best sources: _______Bioavailability from heme sources ___________" from non-heme sources ____________Bioavailability...
Best sources are red meats and organ meats (heme)Bioavailability for heme sources: 15 to 35% (absorbed)Bioavailability for nonheme sources: spinach & rice: 1%,...
RDA for IRON:_______ for adult men and _________ for adult womenVegetarians – ________ for adult men and _______ for adult womenPregnancy –_______ , _____ for pregnant...
8 mg/day for adult men and 18 mg/day for adult womenVegetarians – 14 mg/day for adult men and 33 mg/day for adult womenPregnancy – 27 mg/day 50 mg/day for pregnant vegetarian
ZINCThe most ______intracellular trace elementInvolved in functions of over 300 _____Important for _____ and repair of ______
The most abundant intracellular trace elementInvolved in functions of over 300 enzymes Important for growth and repair of tissue
Zinc from _________ _____ is better absorbed because zinc in plant sources is often bound by ________
Zinc from animal food is better absorbed because zinc in plant sources is often bound by phytates
FunctionEnzyme ______Synthesis of ______ToxicityInterferes with _____ metabolism__ symptoms
FunctionEnzyme cofactorSynthesis of DNA/RNAToxicityInterferes with copper metabolismGI symptoms
Zinc Deficiency =
Poor growthInadequate sexual developmentMost common in underdeveloped countries
3 Sources of Zinc
Animal productsFortified cerealsLegumes
Zinc RDA: Men, women and vegetarians?
11 mg/day for men 8 mg/day for women (11 mg/day during pregnancy)Vegetarians – require ~ 50% more
Main component of Thyroid hormones Regulates growth and metabolism
Iodine deficiency causes _____ and ______. Iodine deficiency is the most well documented ____ deficiency.
Goiter- enlargement of thyroidCretinism- stunting of fetal growth and mental development Most well documented causal deficiency
Source of iodine?
Major source = Iodized saltAlso found in seafood and Foods grown in soil with adequate iodine
Other minerals which function as cofactors are: (these are important minerals, but we don't have to know all about them - mostly just that they matter).
Copper (Legumes, whole grains, nuts, shellfish, seeds)Chromium (Egg yolks, whole grains)Manganese (Nuts, oats, legumes)Molybdenum (Legumes, grains, nuts)Selenium (Meat, fish, whole...
Fluoride: function and deficiency?
FunctionReduces acid production by mouth bacteriaImproves tooth and bone strengthDeficiencyTooth decay
Toxicities in:Fluoride (3x RDA)Tooth ______ during developmentCalcium (2x RDA)Kidney _____, calcification of _______Iron (>>3x RDA; UL = 45 mg)__ upset, ____ damageZinc (4-5x...
Fluoride (3x RDA)Tooth mottling during developmentCalcium (2x RDA)Kidney stones, calcification of tissuesIron (>>3x RDA; UL = 45 mg)GI upset, liver damageZinc (4-5x RDA)Reduced...
4 Contaminant Minerals: Their sources?
Lead (Pb)Cadmium (Cd)Mercury (Hg)Arsenic (As)Often in nonfood sources, environmental contamination (water), fish and other marine food
Supplements are ____ necessary if you are consuming a balanced diet. What four situation are the recommended in?
VeganPregnancyFood allergy/intoleranceLow kcal intake (esp elderly)
The bioavialability of supplements may be poor because of these two factors: Also, this type of dose may be harmful:
Vitamin-vitamin interactionsMineral-mineral interactionsMegadose
In General:* ________ increases blood pressure ( _____ retention leads to increased blood volume_________ lowers blood pressure
In General:* Sodium increases blood pressure (Fluid retention leads to increased blood volume)Potassium lowers blood pressure
Name one mineral present in the following hamburger components: Whole wheat bunRomaine lettuce (dark green leaf)TomatoCheeseGround beef patty
Whole wheat bunRomaine lettuce (dark green leaf)TomatoCheeseGround beef patty
Which minerals are major minerals?Which mineral is most abundant in the body?Which minerals function in/as…*Fluid balance?*Structure?*Blood components?*Energy metabolism?*Antioxidants?
What are good sources of…IronCalciumSulfurMagnesiumZincIodideSodiumChloridePotassium