Ch 8 Minerals: Visualizing Nutrition

47 cards

FSHN 185 Minerals Flashcards.


 
  
Created Apr 1, 2011
by
kcoburn

 

 
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1


Mineral Bioavailability
Decrease:

F_____

p______

Ox______
Mineral-______interactions
              ...

 
Decrease: Fiber and phytate, Oxalates
Mineral-mineral interactions
              ...
2
Minerals Most Likely to be Deficient in N. America
 
Calcium
Iron
Zinc

3

Major functions of minerals

F

E

A

S

BL

 

Fluid balance
Energy Metabolism
Antioxidants

Structure (bones)
Blood components

4

Fluid Balance: Four components?

S

C

P

P

What ...

 
Sodium
Table salt (NaCl):40% sodium, 60% chloride
Major (+) ion, extracellular fluid
Chloride
Table...
5
Food Manufactures Vs. Home Cooked:
How does sodium chloride get into our food? (%)
 
Where does it come from?
~15% added by individuals
~10% naturally occurring in foods
~...
6

What minerals contribute to

Structure (Bones)? What are they found in?

 
Calcium
Makes up 40% of all the mineral present in the body
Has many functions in addition...
7

Calcium / Bone Mass Facts:

Peak mass age?

Loss begins age?

Major...

 
Peak bone mass: age 20-30
Bone loss begins: age 30-40
Significant loss at menopause
Osteoporosis
Poor...
8
Calcium Absorption: Enhancers / Inhibitors
Best source of calcium?
 
Absorption
Enhancers
Vitamin D, stomach acid
Inhibitors
Phytates, oxalates, tannins
Dairy...
9
Vegetarianism and calcium: challenges & tips
Challenge:
Difficult to ____  ____ without...
 
Challenge:
Difficult to meet needs without dairy
Some plant sources are poorly absorbed
Tips:...
10

Sulfur controls _____ base balance. Source?

Component of?

 
Acid-base balance
Source: food proteins
Component of body protein
11
Two types of bones:
 
Cortical or compact bone
Trabecular or spongy bone
12
Bone is composed of:
 
a protein frame work, or matrix, hardened by deposits of minerals

13
___________  is the most abundant protein
_____________  is the calcium-phosphorus...
 
Collagen is the most abundant protein
Hydroxyapatite is the calcium-phosphorus crystal
14
Two types of iron in the diet? Each comes from where?
 
Heme iron: part of hemoglobin and myoglobin in animal products. Heme iron is absorbed more...
15
Map basic chemical structure of heme iron.
 
Fe chem structure
16
Map path of HEME iron in digestive track
 
HEME path: a HEME group is absorbed in small intestine (lumen) at Mucosal wall. Breaks down...
17
Absorption of nonheme iron is affected by many factors

 
Fiber, phytates, tannins, and oxalates bind to iron in the GI tract and reduce absorption
The...
18
Map path of NON-HEME iron in digestive track
 
Non-heme iron enters the mucosal cell as Fe2+. Some is lost as mucosal cell is sloughed off....
19
Regulation of iron transportation
 
*Absorbed iron is bound to storage protein ferritin or picked up by the transport protein transferrin
*The...
20
Iron stores and Iron losses:
 
Iron stores
In ferritin in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow
High levels of liver ferritin...
21

Functions of iron

O

N

C

E

 

*Delivery of OXYGENto cells via two oxygen-carrying proteins hemoglobin and myoglobin
*NEUROtransmitter...

22
Iron is in 3 locations in the body: The iron stores, the plasma and the red blood cells. In...
 
First, the iron stores get low. Second, iron is diminished in the plasma and you have low levels...
23
Symptoms of Iron deficiency anemia
 
Fatigue and weakness
Cannot maintain body temperature
Change in mental/emotional state
Prone...
24
Groups at most risk for Iron deficiency anemia?
 
Infants, children, adolescents
Women of reproductive age
Pregnant women
Athletes
25
Iron toxicity: acute v. chronic
 
Acute toxicity
Ingestion of a single large dose at one time
Chronic toxicity
*Caused...
26
Iron deficiency and iron excess damage ______________
and _____________  _____ in rats....
 
Iron deficiency and iron excess damage mitochondria
and mitochondrial DNA in rats.
27
Meeting Iron need: you must consider the TOTAL diet to avoid excess or under consumption:
Best...
 
Best sources are red meats and organ meats (heme)
Bioavailability for heme sources: 15 to...
28
RDA for IRON:
_______ for adult men and _________ for adult women

Vegetarians –...
 
8 mg/day for adult men and 18 mg/day for adult women

Vegetarians – 14 mg/day for adult...
29
ZINC
The most ______intracellular trace element
Involved in functions of over 300 _____
Important...
 
The most abundant intracellular trace element
Involved in functions of over 300 enzymes...
30
Zinc from  _________     _____ is better absorbed because zinc in...
 
Zinc from animal food is better absorbed because zinc in plant sources is often bound by phytates
31
Function
Enzyme ______
Synthesis of ______
Toxicity
Interferes with _____ metabolism
__...
 
Function
Enzyme cofactor
Synthesis of DNA/RNA
Toxicity
Interferes with copper metabolism
GI...
32
Zinc Deficiency =


 
Poor growth
Inadequate sexual development
Most common in underdeveloped countries
33
3 Sources of Zinc

 
Animal products
Fortified cereals
Legumes
34
Zinc RDA: Men, women and vegetarians?
 
11 mg/day for men
8 mg/day for women (11 mg/day during pregnancy)
Vegetarians – require...
35
Iodine function:
 
Main component of Thyroid hormones
Regulates growth and metabolism
36
Iodine deficiency causes _____ and ______.
Iodine deficiency is the most well documented...
 
Goiter- enlargement of thyroid
Cretinism- stunting of fetal growth and mental development...
37
Source of iodine?
 
Major source = Iodized salt
Also found in seafood and
Foods grown in soil with adequate...
38
Other minerals which function as cofactors are:
(these are important minerals, but we don't...
 
Copper (Legumes, whole grains, nuts, shellfish, seeds)
Chromium (Egg yolks, whole grains)
Manganese...
39
Fluoride: function and deficiency?
 
Function
Reduces acid production by mouth bacteria
Improves tooth and bone strength
Deficiency
Tooth...
40
Toxicities in:
Fluoride (3x RDA)
Tooth ______ during development
Calcium (2x RDA)
Kidney...
 
Fluoride (3x RDA)
Tooth mottling during development
Calcium (2x RDA)
Kidney stones,...
41
4 Contaminant Minerals:
Their sources?
 
Lead (Pb)
Cadmium (Cd)
Mercury (Hg)
Arsenic (As)

Often in nonfood sources,...
42
Supplements are ____ necessary if you are consuming a balanced diet. What four situation are...
 
Vegan
Pregnancy
Food allergy/intolerance
Low kcal intake (esp elderly)

43
The bioavialability of supplements may be poor because of these two factors:
Also, this...
 
Vitamin-vitamin interactions
Mineral-mineral interactions
Megadose
44
In General:*
________ increases blood pressure ( _____ retention leads to increased blood...
 
In General:*
Sodium increases blood pressure (Fluid retention leads to increased blood...
45
Name one mineral present in the following hamburger components:
Whole wheat bun
Romaine...
 
Whole wheat bun
Romaine lettuce (dark green leaf)
Tomato
Cheese
Ground beef patty
46
Which minerals are major minerals?
Which mineral is most abundant in the body?
Which...
 
outta time...
47
What are good sources of…
Iron
Calcium
Sulfur
Magnesium
Zinc
Iodide
Sodium
Chloride
Potassium
 
outta time...

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