Ch 6 Bone Tissue

85 cards

Bone tissue Anatomy


 
  
Created Sep 19, 2010
by
maritessa

 

 
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1
Cartilage
 
Resilient tissue that is poorly vascularlized
-Hyaline
-Elastic
-Fibrocartilage
2
Hyaline Cartilage
 
-Articular cartilages and coastal (rib) cartilage, larynx, trachea, and nose
-Rich in collagen...
3
Elastic Cartilage
 
-Ear pinna and epiglottis
-Contains many elastic/collage fibers
-Able to tolerate repeated...
4
Fibrocartilage
 
-Intervertebral discs, knee menisci, pubic symphysis
-Inermediate between hyaline and elastic...
5
Chondocyte in Lacunae
 
Produce additional cartilage tissue
6
Perichondrium
 
Round; membrane of fibrous connective tissue that surrounds the external surface of cartilage
7
Appositional Growth

Think: new cartilage
 
Chondoblasts in surrounding perichondrium produce new cartilage; produce cartilage inside
-Growth...
8
Interstitial Growth

Think: matrix
 
Chondrocytes within cartilage divide and secrete new matrix
9
Tissue in Bones
 
-Come from mesoderm
-Dominated by bone connective tissue
-Contain nervous tissue (ectoderm)...
10
What germ layer is the inside layer of bone made out of?
 
Endoderm
11
Function of Bones
 
-Support, movement, protection, mineral storage, bone-cell formation (bone contains bone red...
12
Osteocalcin
 
Stimulates pancreas to produce more insulin and fat cells to become insulin sensitive
13
Extracellular Matrix
 
35% organic
-Rich in collagen - provides tensile strength; contributes to flexibility

65%...
14
Osteogenic cells
 
-Stem cells that differentiate into osteoblasts
-From or composed of any tissue concerned...
15
Osteoblasts
 
Actively produce and secrete bone matrix (ground matrix and collagen fibrils)
-Bone matrix...
16
Osteocyte
 
-Keep bone matrixes healthy
-Mature bone cells
-Spider shaped that occupy lacunae (small...
17
Osteo
 
Bone matrix secreted by osteoblasts and crystallized by salts
18
Osteoclast
 
-Resorption of bones
-Derived from white blood cells
-Secrete HCl and lysosomal enzymes
-Remove...
19
Long bones
 
Longer than wide; shaft plus 2 ends
Common on extremities
20
Short Bones

Think: Cube
 
-Roughly cube-shaped
-Wrist and ankles
-Sesamoid bones: special type of short bone which...
21
Flat bones
 
Thin and flattened, usually curved
Ex: ribs, sternum, scapula, and some cranial bones
22
Irregular Bones
 
Various shapes, don't fit in other categories
Ex: vertebrae and hip bones
23
Compact Bone
 
Dense outer layer of bone
24
Spongy bone (cancellous or trabecular bone)
 
-internal 3D network of bone with small needle-like or flat pieces called traceculae are filled...
25
Red bone barrow
 
Mainly hematopooetic cells
26
Yellow bone marrow
 
Mainly adipose cells
27
Structure of Long Bone
 
• Diaphysis—“shaft” long axis of a bone
• Epiphysis—ends of a bone with joint...
28
Diaphysis
 
Shaft - Long axis of bone
Very center has no spongy bone and is filled with yellow bone...
29
Epiphysis
 
Ends of a one with joint surfaces typically covered with think later of hyaline cartilage called...
30
Epiphyseal line
 
Runs in between diaphysis and epiphysis in adults and is remnant of epiphyseal
31
Blood vessels
 
Unlike cartilage, bones are well vascularized; nutrients arteries and nutrient veins service...
32
What's a big difference between cartilage and bone?
 
Bones are well vascularized
33
Medullary cavity
 
Interior of all bones consists largely of spongy bone with marrow in between traceculae

34
Membranes
 
Periosteum, perforating fibers (Sharpey's fibers) and endosteum (inside medullary cavity)
35
Periosteum and Perforating Fibers

Think: external surface
 
-Connective tissue and membrane which covers external surface of bone, except the ends of epiphyses...
36
Superficial outer periosteum
 
Layer of dense irregular connective tissue which resists tension placed on bone
37
Deep inner periosteium layer
 
Abuts compact outer surface of compact bone; deep later is osteogenic and forms osteoblasts...
38
Perforating Fibers (Sharpey's Fibers)
 
Secure periosteum to underlining bone with thick bundles of collagen that run from periosteium...
39
Endosteum

Think: Internal surface
 
-Thin connective tissue membrane layer which lines internal bone surfaces including trabeculae...
40
Osteons (Haverson System)

Lamellae + Central = osteon
 
-Long cylindrical structures which run along axis of bone
-Function in support
-Structurally...
41
Microscopic Structure of Compact Bone
 
Long tube gives structural strength

Smallest --> Biggest
Nerve
Vein
Artery
42
Structure of Short, irregular, and flat bones
 
-No diaphysis
-No epiphysis
-Hard dense compact outer layer of bone
-Diploe: Internal...
43
Long bone vs. Short bone
 

Long Bone

...
44
Trabeculae - Connective Tissue
 
-bony spicules in cancellous bone which form a meshwork of intercommunicating spaces that...
45
Bone Design: Compression and tension
 
Anatomy of bone reflects stresses
-Compression and tension greatest at external surfaces
-Compression...
46
Bone Markings
 
1. Projections for muscle and ligament attachment
2. Surfaces that form joints
3. Depressions...
47
Projections for muscle and ligament attachment
 
1. Tuberosity - Large rounded project; may be roughened
2. Crest - Narrow ridge of bone;...
48
http://www.proprofs.com/flashcards/cards.php?id=89397Surfaces that form joints
 
1. Head - any bony expansion carried on a neck
2. Facet - smooth, nearly flat articular...
49
Depressions and Openings
 
1. Foreamen - round or oval opening through a bone
2. Groove - furrow
3. Fissure - narrow,...
50
Compact Bone
 
-Contains passage ways for blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves
-Osteons that function...
51
Concentric Tube
 
Osteon
Compact Bone
 
Each tube is a lamella with layer of bone matrix in which collagen fibers and mineral crystals...
52
Central Canal (Haversion System)
 
-Runs through each osteon
-Lined with osteogenic endosteum layer with osteoblast
-Lamella...
53
Canaliculi
 
-Connect neighboring lacunae to one another and to capillaries for nutrient supply
-There...
54
Some Lamellae not found in Osteons
 
1. Interstitial lamellae
2. Circumferential lamellae
55
Interstitial Lamellae
 
-Between osteons
-Groups of incomplete lamellae which lie between osteons; remains of old...
56
Circumferential Lamellae
 
Extends around the entire circumference of diaphysis
57
Ossification/Osteogenesis
 
Bone-tissue formation
-Membrane bones
-Endochondrial bones
58
Membrane Bones

 
Ex: Cranial bones, clavicles

Formed directly from mesenchyme (from mesoderm) without...
59
Endochondrial Bones
 
Develop initially from hyaline cartilage which is replaced by a bone through endochondral ossification
60
Intramembranous Ossification
 
1. Ossification center appears in the fibrous  of connective tissue membrane
-Mesenchymal...
61
Endochondrial Ossification
 
-All bones except skull and clavicles
-Modeled by hyaline cartilage
-Forms late in second...
62
Epiphyseal Plates
 
-Cartilage organized for quick, efficient growth
-Cartilage cells form tall stacks (chondroblasts)...
63
Resting Zone

Epiphyseal Plates
 
-Cells nearest to epiphysis that are small and inactive

64
Proliferation Zone

Epiphyseal Plates
 
-Made up of chondroblasts at top of stack which divide quickly, pushing epiphysis away from...
65
Hypertrophic Zone

Epiphyseal Plates
 
-Older chondrocytes deep in stack signals around cartilage matrix
-Older cartilage cells...
66
Calcification Zone
 
Matrix becomes calcified; cartilage cells die; matrix begins deteriorating
67
Ossification Zone
 
 New Bone formed
68
Postnatal Endochondrial Bones
 
-Bones lengthen by epiphyseal plates; they maintain constant thickness
-Cartilage replaced...
69
Osteoblast vs. Osteoclast
 
Osteoblast - add; external; bone deposition
Osteoclast - remove; internal; bone resorption...
70
Growth Hormone
 
-Produced by pituitary gland
-Stimulates epiphyseal plates
71
Thyroid Hormones
 
-Ensure skeleton retains proper proportions
72
Sex Hormones (estrogen and testosterone)
 
-Promote bone growth
-Induce closure of epiphyseal plates
73
What happens to long bones as adolescence ends?
 
Long bone stops lengthening when diaphysis and epiphysis fuse.
-epiphyseal plates become...
74
Bone remodeling
 
-500 mg calcium
-Canellous (spongy) bone replaced every 3-4 yrs
-Compact bone replaced...
75
Where do bone deposit and resorption occur?
 
Periosteal (perosteum) and endoesteal (endosteum)
76
Simple fracture
 
Bone fracture without penetrating skin
77
Compound fracture
 
Bone fracture injury that breaks skin
-Likelihood of infection increases
-Treat with...
78
Treatment by reduction
 
Closed: hands
Open: surgically set with pins and wires
79
Phases of healing simple fracture
 
1. Hematoma formation: blood vessels break in periosteum and inside bone

2. Fibrocartilage...
80
Mesoderm
Mesenchyme
Ossification
 
Mesoderm --> embryonic mesenchyme cells

Mesenchyme --> membranes and cartilate...
81
Paget's Disease: makes bones soft and deformed
 
-Excessive rate of bone resorption and formation
       ...
82
Osteosarcoma
 
Bone cancer that occurs in long bones of lower or upper extremity
83
Osteomalcia "soft bones"
 
-Adults
Bones inadequately mineralized
84
Rickets
 
-Children w/ inadequate Vitamin D
-B/c bones soft, child may have bowed legs and cranial...
85
Osteoporosis
 
-Low bone mass
-Resporption faster than deposition
-Increased ratio of osteclasts/osteoblasts
-Compact...

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