Cellular Level Of Organizatio

A & P 1 Chapte
 
Created Feb 2, 2010
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ashleymcrawford
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Cell
The basic living, structural and functional unit of the body.
Cell Biology
The study of cell structure and function
Parts of a Cell
*Plasma (cell) membrane *Cytoplasm (a)Cytosol (b)Organelles *Nucleus
Plasma Membrane
Surrounds the cell and occurs as a LIPID bilayer (2 back to back lipid layers) with interspersed...
Phospholipids
orient in a BILAYER to make the basic framework of the membrane. Represent 75% of membrane...
Glycolipids
Help form an outer coat on the cell called the GLYCOCALYX.
Cholesterol
STRENGTHENS the membrane and decrease membrane fluidity.
Membrane Proteins
Largley determine what functiona a cell will perform and can vary from cell to cell.
Intergral proteins
If membrane proteins extend into or through cell membranes.
Ion Channels
A water filled pore through which IONS can pass.
Transporters
(carrie proteins) Move a certain POLAR chemical from one side to the other by CHANGING the...
Receptor proteins
BOND to a specific chemical in the extracellular (outside) fluid SIGNAL the cell to carry out...
Ligands
Molecules (chemicals) that bond to a specific receptor. (Ex. insulin ligan binds to insulin...
Enzymes
Speed up chemical reactions
Cell indentity markers
(glycoproteins) Help cells RECOGNIZE each other.
Linkers
anchor proteins of neighboring cells to each other or they anchor filaments to the plasma membrane.
Glycoproteins help form the GLYCOCALYX which allows cells to:
PROTECT itself from being digested. Become sticky to HOLD it to other cells. Hold a fluid layer...
Selective Permeability
The membrane allows SOME chemicals to pass through but prevents passage of others.  
Selective Permeability. Of those that PASS through:
*Chemicals that dissolve in lipids are NONPOLAR, UNCHARGED molecules (O2, CO2 and others) and...
Fluidity
Membranes is flexible enough that it is SELF SEALS after being punctured.
Chemical gradient
(change over a space) The selective permeable membrane maintains different concentrations of...
Electrical gradient
The extracellular side is slightly POSITIVE and the cytosol side is slightly NEGATIVE.
Electrochemical gradient
The combined concentration and electrical gradients.
Passive Process: Diffusion
The movement of a chemical from an area of higher  concentration to lower concentration...
The diffusion rate depends on the following:
STEEPNESS of the concentration gradient. TEMPEERATURE. the LARGER THE SURFACE AREA of the membrane...
Simple diffusion
The movement of a chemical through the phospholipids of a membrane from a HIGHER concentration...
Facilitated  diffusion
The movement of a chemical through a TRANSPORTER or ION CHANNEL in the plasma membrane ...
Osmosis
The movement of water molecules through a plasma membrane from a HIGHER concentration ...
Aquaporins
Water can move through the phospholipids or through channel proteins.
Water moves from an area of:
Lower solute to Higher solute
Osmosis occurs ONLY:
when the membrane is permeable to water but NOT to certain solutes.
Osmotic pressure:
The pressure that must be applied to prevent osmotic movement (water movement) across a membrane....
Tonicity
A membrane of a solutions ability  to change the cells shape or tone by altering its water...
Normal Saline
A solution is a 0.9% NACl solution, which is ISOTONIC to red blood cell (RBC).
IV solutions
Usually isotonic to prevent damage to RBCs.  
Hypertonic solutions
can be used to treat cerebral edema (draws out water)
Hypotonic solutions
can be used to treat dehydration (gets more water to them)
Active transport (requires energy)
The cell uses ENERGY to move a chemical from a LOWER concentration to a HIGHER concentration...
SODIUM ION/ K ION PUMP aka:
NA+/K+ ATPase pump. It is found in all cell membranes and uses 40% of cells ATP (energy).
Primary active transport
The movement of a chemical across a membrane  from lower concentration to higher concentration....
Secondary active transportation
SIMULTANEOUS movement of Na+ (or H+) and ANOTHER chemical.  This depends on a Na+ (or...
Symporter
Transporter protein that moves the other chemical in the SAME directions as Na+
Antiporter
Transporter protein  that moves the other chemical in the OPPOSITE direction  to...
Vesicular transport
The movement of a material by small membrane bound spheres (vesicles)
Endocytosis
Materials move INTO the cell in a vesicle formed from the plasma membrane.
Receptor mediated  endocytosis
A specific LIGAND bonds to its receptor on the cell which stimulates that cell to engulf that...
Phagocytosis
movement of SOLID particles  into the cell by a vesicle.
Bulk phase endocytosis (pinocytosis)
Movements of FLUID with dissolved SOLUTES into the cell by a vesicle. NO recceptor proteins...
Exocytosis
A vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane and releases its contents to the outside. (ex. Glands)
Transcytosis
A substance is moved THROUGH a cell, into one side and out the oppisite side.
Cytosol
The fluid inside the cell. It surrounds the other structures. Composed mostly of water. The...
Cytoplasm
The are between the plasma membrane and the nucleus. It includes the cytosol and the organelles.
Cytoskeleton
An internal network of protein filaments that serves to maintain cell's shape, move structures...
Centrosomes
Serves as a center for organizing microtubules in dividing cells (mitotic spindle) and nondividing...
Flagella
Long whip like appendages that serve in cell LOCOMOTION.
Cilia
Short bristle like appendages, which serve to MOVE materials over the surface of a stationary...
Ribosomes
Serve to directly produce the PROTEINS (sites for protein synthesis) *Tiny spheres that...
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
Studded with ribosomes and acts as a site for synthesis of PROTEINS and phospholipids. Extends...
Smoothe endoplasmic reticulum
Acts as the major site for synthesis of LIPIDS in general. It also detoxifies toxins.
Golgi complex
4-6 stacked flattened membraneous sacs. Serves to process, package, and deliver proteins and...
Lysosomes (ly-breakdown)
Vesicles  that contain DIGESTIVE enzymes to break down materials for the cell.
Perioxisomes (periox-detoxify)
Vesicles that contain enzymes (oxidases) that DETOXIFY materials.
Proteosomes (prote-protein)
Breakdown UNNEEDED, DAMAGED, or FAULTY proteins in the cytosol. Failure of proteosomes function...
Mitochondria
(Power House) Serves to produce ATP using energy from the breakdown of food (cell respiration)....
Cell Nucleus: Function
Nucleus contains the GENES which CONTROL the structure and many activities of the cell.
Cell Nucleus: Structure   Nuclear Envelope
The double membrane  that surrounds the nucleus, it has PORES that allow water and dissolved...
Nucleoli
Smaller spheres in the nucleus that produces the RIBOSOMES.
Chromosomes
A single long DNA molecule or two DNA's that are duplicated and attatched to each other .
Chromatid
Half of a duplicated chromosomes.
Chromatin
The material that is composed of DNA and histone proteins. (Chromosomes are composed of chromatin.)
Gene
A segment of DNA, which controls one or more TRAITS by coding for a certain polypeptide.
Genome
TOTAL genetic information carried in a cell or an organism (all of their genes)
Sequence of events invovled in PROTEIN SYNTHESIS.
DNA has a genetic message that is in the form of a SEQUENCE of nucleotide bases along the molecule....
Transcription
The genetic information on the DNA is passed  to a messenger  RNA (mRNA) molecule. ...
The___of the gene unwinds and ____between the bases break.
DNA / bonds
A_____molecule forms off of one side of the DNA  by matching their bases. In this process...
mRNA /  mRNA / DNA / DNA / mRNA
Transcription is catalyzed by
the enzyme RNA POLYMERASE
Segmants of mRNA called ____ are cut out and remaining segmants called ____ are spliced together...
Introns / exons / nucleus / variety
Translation
Base sequence along the mRNA is used  to MAKE a protein that has a CERTAIN SEQUENCE of...
Bonds with mRNA and move along it
Ribosomes
Each Transfer RNA...
has a certain sequence of 3 BASES exposed at one end (anticodon), and at the other end contains...
As the ribosomes move along the ____ it helps the corresponding ____ BOND to each triplet of...
mRNA / tRNA / mRNA
The amino acid on the new tRNA forms a _______ with the amino acid next to it and the peptide...
Peptide Bond / tRNA
Interphase
The cell carries on every life process EXCEPT devision.
Interphase consist of 3 phases:
G1, S, and G2
G1 Phase
(Gap Phase 1) The cell produces new organelles to replace those that were lost tothe other...
S Phase
(S=synthesis) The chromosomes are duplicated  (new DNA is synthesized)
G2 Phase
 (Gap Phase 2) Proteins needed for cell division are produced.
M Phase
(M=mitosis) Nucleus divides  (mitosis) and the cytoplasm  divides  (cytokenesis)
Somatic Cell Division
(Mitosis) Occurs in all body cells except for those cells that directly produce  gametes...
Each somatic cell devision produces:
2 daughter cells, each with the same number and kinds of chromosomes as the original mother...
Diploid Number
2 of each kind of chromosome
What is the order of Somatic cell devision?
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telephase
Prophase
Chromosomes condense or thicken, Nuclear envelope dissapears, Nucleoli dissapear, Mitotic spindle...
Metaphase
Chromosomes line up in a single row along the middle of the cell.
Anaphase
Chromosomes seperate at their centromeres and one  copy of each travels to a separate...
Telephase
Chromosomes unwind into more diffuse structures, Nuclear envelope reappears, Nucleoli reappear,...
Cytokinesis
The division of a parents cell's cytoplasm and organelles. Begins in late Anaphase or early...
When cytokinesis is complete:
Interphase begins
Cyclins
Proteins that increase in concentration in between cell divisions to activate other chemicals...
Cdks (Cyclin dependent protein kinases)
Proteins that stimulate replication of DNA, or prophase to begin.
Apoptosis
A normal, genetically programmed cell death that occurs in cells scattered throughout a tissue.
Necrosis
A pathological cell death that results from tissue injury of many adjacent cells, and usually...
Function of Reproductive Cell Devision:
produces gametes that will unite to form a new individual in sexual reproduction.
What happens when the chromosomes number is cut in half in the gametes?
It serves to keep the chromosome number constant from generation to generation. * it also serves...
Meiosis involves 2 cell devisions:
Meiosis I and Meiosis II
During meiosis I:
The chromosomes number is cut in half and a major mechanism that produces genetic variation...
Some cells ( muscle, skeletal and nerve) are not replaced because:
 they wont divide or divide a limited  number of times.
Telomeres are
at  the ends of chromosomes which erode with each mitosis event. This contributes...
Loss of ______, ______ , due to glucose forming cross links between proteins.
Elasticity, Stiffening
______ damage cells by oxidizing (stealing e- s from) lipids, proteins, or nucleic acids.
Free radicals
Autoimmune reponses
as cells age, their cell identity markers sometimes change, which stimulates the immune repsonse...
Cancer
An abnormal, out of control, division of cells. Growth is at expense of normal tissue. 
Tumor (neoplasm)
excess tissue that develops from uncontrolled cell proliferation.
Benign Tumor
An abnormal growth of cells that has not spread.
Malignant Tumor
An abnormal growth of cells that often has spread to other parts of the body.
Metastasis
The spread of cancer cells to other parts of the body.
What is the root cause of cancer?
 Mutation in genes that normally control cell division, to form oncogenes. CARCINOGENS...
Oncogene
Produces an abnormal protein that stimulates cell devision or can produce a growth factor in...
Chromosomal rearrangement
Occurs to bring a regulator gene near a dormant oncogene to activate it.
Tumor suppressor genes
inhibit cell division, but if a mutation occurs to make them nonfunctional, then cancer can...
A virus may splice an oncogene into a cells _____ when it invades that cell.
DNA
Anaplasia
The loss of tissue differention and function that is characteristics of most malignancies.
Atrophy
Decreased size of cells, with a subsequent decreased size of the affected tissue or organ;...
Dysplasia
Alteration in size, shape and organization of cells due to chronic irritation or inflammation;...
Hyperplasia
Increased number of cells in a tissue due to increased frequency of cell division.
Hypertrophy
Increased size of cells without cell division.
Metaplasia
The transformation of one type of cell into another


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