Cells Revision

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These may be attached to ER or free in the cytoplasm
How many celss are created form mitosis
If a human cell has 46 chromosomes, how many chromosomes will be in ach daughter cell?
46 Chromesomes
What is the function of the nucleolus
involved the the manufacture and assembly of the components of ribosomes.
What is the function of microtubules?

Microtules form from the centriols at the centrosome.
They are made of a spherical proteine sub unit called tublin and determine the overall shape of the cell.
They also organise the cells organells and are used in the mitotic spindles to organise the chromosomes.
What anchors the spindle?

Cells group together to form______which group together to form_____ which then group together to form_______.

The appearance may be rough or smooth.
Endoplamic Reticulum

As a result of mitosis, each new cell has:
a) twice as many chromosomes as its parent cell
b) half as many
c) Four times as many
d) The same number
e) None of the about
d) the same number of chomosomes as its parent cell.

True or False
During metaphase the centromeres of the chomosomes gather along the equatorial plane
Regulates passage of material into and out of the cell.
Cell membrane
Mebranous sac of digestive enzymes
What is the function of Rough ER

It is externally studded with ribosomes.
Sugar groups are attached to the proteins within the cisternae; proteins are bound in vesicles for transportation to the golgi apparatus and other sites; the external face synthesize phospholipds and cholesterol
what is the function of smooth ER

The smooth ER is a membranous system of sacs and tubules.
It is free of ribosomes and is the site of lipid and steroid synthesis, lipid metabolism, and drug detoxification.
What moves the chomatids during mitosis
Spindle fibers
is involves in enrgy formation (ATP) for the cell
The process by which a cell physically divides into two daughter cells
What are the four phases of mitosis

What is the function of lysosomes

Lysosomes are membranous sacs that contain acid hydrolases.
These are the sites of intracelluar digestion.
What is the function of Microfilaments

Microfilaments are made from small fibrous protein called actin.
They are involved in cellular movement such as amoeboid motion, and muscle contraction.
They also serve to seperate the cytoplasm during cell division.
what structure holds the individual chomatids together
what is the function of the nuclear envelope?

The nuclear envelope is a double membrane structure which is pierced by the pores.
The outer membrane is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum.
What is the function of centrioles?

These paired cylindrical bodies are each composed of nine triplets of mircrotubules. They organise a microtubules network during mitosis to form the spindle and asters and the bases of cilia and flagella.
What is the function of ribosomes?

Ribosomes are dense particles that consist of two subunits, each cimposed of ribosomal RNA and protein.
They may be free or attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum and are the sites of protein synthesis.
What is the Nuleus Function?

Within the nucleus is DNA resposible for providing the cell with its unique characteristics.
The DNA is simular in every cell of the body but depending on the specific cell type, some genes may be tuned on or off.
What is the function of mitochondria

They are involved in aerobic respiration, the process by which chemical energy is made available to the cell.
This is a form of ATP, which releases energy when the cell breaks it down.
What is the function of golgi apparatus?

Stack of smooth membrane sacs and associated vesicles that are close to the nuclus.
The apparatus packages, modifies and segregates proteins for secretion from the cell, for inclusion in Lysosomes and for incorporation into the plasma membrane.
What is the function of the plasma membrane

This membrane encloses the cell and is made from a bi-layer of phospholipids and cholesterol.
it acts as a semi-permeable barrier to create an internal and external environment

Label the diagram

2- Rough ER
3- Nucleus
4- Nuclear pores
5- Plasma Membrane
6- Nucleolus
7- Nuclear Envelope
8- Chomatin
9- Rough ER
10- Ribsomes
11- Smooth ER
12- Cilia
13- Golgi Apparatus
14- Smooth ER
16- Centriols
17- Perooxisome
18- Lysosomes
19- Microfilaments
The plasma membrane consists of
a)mostly proteins.
b)entirely of phospholipids.
c)phospholipids, proteins, and carbohydrates.
d)carbohydrates and lipids.
phospholipids, proteins, and carbohydrates

The cytoplasm is the term for
a) all cell organelles combined.
b) microtubules and microfilaments.
c) The fluid portion of the cell (cytosol).
d) the cytosol plus the cell organelles and inclusions.
the cytosol plus the cell organelles and inclusions

3. Endocytosis is an example of
a) excretion.
b) passive transport.
c) active transport.
d) simple diffusion.
active transport

The movement of water across a selectively
a)permeable membrane is called
c) facilitated diffusion.
d) active transport.
e) filtration.
Which of the following is necessary for diffusion to occur?
a) a concentration gradient.
b) a selectively permeable membrane.
c) a hypertonic solution.
d) cellular energy.
a concentration gradient
A red blood cell placed in a hypotonic solution
a) loses water.
b) gains water.
c) neither gains nor loses water.
d) shrinks
gains water
Chromatin is found in the
a) nucleus.
b) ribosomes.
c) mitochondria.
d) lysosomes.
The packaging and sorting of proteins is the function of the
a) endoplasmic reticulum.
b) Golgi apparatus.
c) mitochondria.
d) nucleus.
Golgi apparatus
Protein synthesis occurs at the
a) mitochondria.
b) Golgi apparatus.
c) ribosomes.
d) lysosomes.
Which of the following are considered the "powerhouses" of the cell?
a) lysosomes.
b) ribosomes.
c) nucleolus.
d) mitochondria.

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