CBC, WBC, RBC Lab Values

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Normal hemoglobin (HBG) values:
13.5 - 16.5 male 12.0 - 15.0 female
Normal hematocrit (HCT) values are:
41 - 50 male 36 - 44 female
Normal RBC count is:
4.5 - 5.5 male 4.0 - 4.9 (x 106 /ml) female
Normal platelet count is:
100,000 to 450,000
Normal WBC count is:
4,500 - 10,000
Normal segmented neurtophil count is:
54 - 62%
Normal band form count is:
3 - 5% (above 8% indicates left shift)
Normal basophil count is:
Normal eosinophil count is:
Normal lymphocyte count is: 24-44%
Normal monocyte count is:
Increased WBC count may be suggestive of:
Bacterial/viral infection, leukemia.
Reduced RBC values (anemia) may be suggestive of:
Hemorrhage, bacterial infections, low B-12, kidney disease (erythropoietin, which signals the red bone marrow in the bones to create RBCs, is made in the kidneys).
Decreased HBG may be suggestive of:
Anemia due to nutritional deficiencies, blood loss, destruction of blood cells internally, or failure to produce blood in the bone marrow.
Decreased HCT may be suggestive of:
Anemia due to nutritional deficiencies, blood loss.
Reduced platelet count may be suggestive of:
Thrombocytopenia, acute blood loss, drug effects (such as heparin), infections w/sepsis, entrapment of platelets in an enlarged spleen, bone marrow failure from diseases such as leukemia.
RBC function is to:
Transport oxygen bound to HBG. Also transports small amounts of carbon dioxide
Neutrophil function:
They are active phagocytes. They increase rapidly in number during short-term or acute infection. "First responders" to infection.
Eosinophil function:
Increase during allergies, kill parasitic worms.
Basophil function:
Responds to inflammation. Granules contain histamine (vasodilator), which is discharged at sites of inflammation.
Granulocytes include:
The "Phils": neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
Agranulocytes include:
Lymphocytes and monocytes
Lymphocyte function:
Important in the "immune response." B lymphocytes produce antibodies. T lymphocytes fight infections and tumors and also active B lymphocytes.
Monocyte function:
Phagocytes that become macrophages in the tissues. They are the "clean-up team." They increase in number during chronic infections, such at TB.
Monocyte increase may indicate:
Long-term infection
Neutrophil increase may indicate:
New-onset (acute) infection.
Platelet function:
Clot blood. Are not "cells", but fragments of megakaryocytes.
Blood cell formation:
Hemocytoblasts (stem cells) become secondary stem cells (either lymphoid stem cells or myeloid stem cells). Lymphoid stem cells become lymphocytes. Myeloid stem cells become either: erythrocytes, platelets, monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, or basophils.
RBC formation:
Includes the kidney (releases erythropoietin), which stimulates red bone marrow in the bones to produce RBCs. May be stimulated w/decreased RBC count, decreased O2 in blood, or increased O2 demand in the tissues.
Normal and therapeutic PT / INR values:
Normal INR should be appx. 1.0. Therapeutic level (prevent DVT) is between 2-3. This test is done during warfarin (Coumadin) therapy. Normal PT should be between 10-12, but INR is generally used instead. The HIGHER the INR, the thinner the blood. Too high is increased risk of bleeding problems.
Normal PTT values:
Normal is between 30-45 seconds. This test is generally done while on heparin therapy (Lovenox).
Trick to remembering which test goes with which drug: PT / PTT
Count the letters in the word WARFARIN (8-letters), then add the letters from the corresponding test (PT--2 letters). You end up with 10 letters. Count the letters in HEPARIN (7), then add the correct test (PTT--3 letters). When the correct test is matched up to the correct drug, you should end up with (letters). Simple, but works. This works with Coumadin/PT and Lovenox/PTT also.
PT / INR test is used during: PTT test is used during:
PT/INR: Warfarin (Coumadin) therapy PTT: Heparin (Lovenox) therapy
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