Cardiovascular System: Word Roots And Vocabulary

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Word Roots, Prefices, Suffices, And Vocabulary Pertaining To The Cardiovascular System. Taken From Medical Terminology Systems: A Body Systems Approach, Barbara A. Gylys, F A Davis.

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diaphoresis
 
profuse sweating
incompetent
 
Inability to adequately perform a given function or action
leaflet
 
Thin, flattened structure, term used to sescribe the leaf-shaped structures that compose a heart valve.
lumen
 
Tubular space or channel within any organ or structure of the body; space within an artery, vein, intestine, or tube.
malaise
 
Vague, uneasy feeling of body weakness, distress, or discomfort, commonly marking the onset of and persisting through a disease
occlusion
 
Blockage of a canal, vessel, or passage of the body; the state of being closed.
patent
 
Open and unblocked, such as a patent artery.
prophylaxis
 
Preventative measure or technique comonly involving the use of a biologic, chemical, or mechanical agent.
pro-
 
before, in front of
-phylaxis
 
protection
viscosity
 
State of being sticky or gummy
aneurysm/o
 
a widening, a widened blood vessel
angi/o
 
vessel (usually blood or lymph)
vascul/o
 
vessel
aort/o
 
aorta
arteri/o
 
artery
arteriol/o
 
arteriole
atri/o
 
atrium
ather/o
 
fatty plaque
cardi/o
 
heart
electr/o
 
electricity
embol/o
 
plug
hemangi/o
 
blood vessel
my/o
 
muscle
phleb/o
 
vein
ven/o
 
vein
scler/o
 
hardening
sept/o
 
septum
sphygm/o
 
pulse
sten/o
 
narrowing, stricture
thromb/o
 
blood clot
vetricul/o
 
ventricle (of the heart or brain)
-gram
 
record, writing
-graph
 
instrument for recording
-graphy
 
process of recording
-sphyxia
 
pulse
-stenosis
 
narrowing, stricture
brady-
 
slow
endo-
 
in, within
extra-
 
outside
peri-
 
around
tachy-
 
rapid
trans-
 
across
aneurysm
 
Localized abnormal dilation of vessel, usually an artery.
arrest
 
condition of being stopped
cardiac arrest
 
Loss of effective cardiac function, which results in cessation of circulation.
circulatory arrest
 
Cessation of the circulation of blood due to ventricular standstill or fibrillation.
arrythmia
 
Inability of the heart to maintain a steady rhythm, possibly including a rapid, slow, or skipped beat.
bruit
 
Soft blowing sound heard on auscultation, possibly due to vibrations associated with the movement of blood. Murmur.
cardiomyopathy
 
Disease of the heart muscle that diminishes cardiac function.
catheter
 
Thin, flexible, hollow tube that is small enough to be threaded through a vein, artery, or tubular structure.
coarctation
 
Narrowing of a vessel, escpecially the aorta.
heart failure
 
Failure of the heart to supply an adequate amount of blood to tissues and organs.
embolus
 
Mass of undissolved matter circulating in blood or lymphatic channels until it becomes lodged in a vessel.
fibrillation
 
Quivering or spontaneous muscle contractions, especially of the heart, causing ineffectual contractions.
hemostasis
 
Arrest of bleeding or circulation
hem/o
 
blood
stasis
 
standing still
hyperlipidemia
 
Excessive amounts of lipids (cholesterol, phospholipids, triglycerides) in the blood.
hypertension
 
Common disorder characterized by elevated blood pressure persistently exceeding 140 systolic or 90 diastolic.
primary hypertension
 
hypertension in which there is no identifiable cause, also called essential hypertension
secondary hypertension
 
Hypertension that results from an underlying , identifiable, commonly correctable cause.
hypertensive heart disease
 
Any heart disorder caused by prolonged hypertension, including left ventricular hypertrophy, and others.
implantable cardioverter-debibrillator (ICD)
 
Implantable battery-powered device that monitors and, if necessary, corrects an irregular heart rhythm by sending impulses to the heart.
infarct
 
Area of tissue that undergoes necrosis following cessation of blood supply.
ischemia
 
Local and temporary deficiency of blood supply due to circulatory obstruction.
mitral valve prolapse (MVP)
 
Condition in which the leaflets of the mitral valve prolapse into the left atrium during systole.
radioisotope
 
Chemical radioactive substance used as a tracer to follow a substance through a body or structure.
palpitation
 
Sensation that the heart is not beating normally, or a pounding feeling in the chest.
patent ductus arteriosus
 
Failure of the ductus arteriosus to close after birth, allowing blood to flow from the aorta into the pulmonary artery.
perfusion
 
Circulation of blood through tissues or the passage of fluids through vessels or an organ.
tetralogy of Fallot
 
Congenital anomaly caused by increased workload of the aorta.
stent
 
slender or threadlike device used to hold open vessels, tubes, or an obstructed artery.
Stokes-Adams syndrome
 
Altered state of consciousness or fainting due to decreased blood flow to the brain, caused by prolonged asystole.
asystole
 
absence of muscular contraction of the heart.
thrombus
 
Blood clot that obstructs a vessel.
cardiac catheterization
 
Passage of a catheter into the heart through a vein or artery to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the heart.
electrocardiogram (ECG, EKG)
 
Graphic line recording that shows the spread of electrical excitation to different parts of the heart.
Holter monitor test
 
ECG taken with a small portable recording system capable of storing up to 24 hours of ECG tracings.
stress test
 
ECG taken under controlled exercise stress conditions.
nuclear stress test
 
Utilizes a radioisotope to evaluate coronary blood flow.
cardiac enzyme studies
 
Blood test that measures troponin T, tronponin I, and creatinine kinase (CK-MB).
lipid panel
 
Series of tests used to assess risk factors of ischemic heart disease (lipoproteins, triglycerides, etc).
aortography
 
Radiological exam of aorta and its branches with contrast via catheter.
cornary angiography
 
Radiological exam of the blood vessels of and around the heart.
echocardiography
 
noninvasive method that utilizes ultrasound to visualize internal cardiac structures and produce images of the heart.
Doppler ultrasound
 
Noninvasive adaption of ultrasound technology in which blood flow velocity is assessed in different areas of the heart.
phonocardiography
 
Imaging technique that provides a graphic display of heart sounds and murmurs during the cardiac cycle.
scintigraphy
 
Injection and subsequent detection of radioactive isotopes to create images of body parts and identify body functions and diseases.
cardioversion
 
Process of restoring the normal rhythm of the heart by applying a controlled electric shock to the exterior of the chest.
embolization
 
Technique used to block blood flow to a site by passing a catheter to the area and injecting material specially designed to occlude the blood vessel.
angioplasty
 
Procedure that alters a vessel through surgery or dilation of the vessel using a balloon catheter.
coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
 
Surgical procedure that uses a vessel graft from another part of the body to bypass the blocked part of a coronary artery.
percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)
 
Dilation of an accluded vessel using a balloon catheter under fluoroscopic guidance.
atherectomy
 
Removal of material from an occluded vessel using a specially designed catheter fitted with a cutting or grinding device.
catheter ablation
 
Destruction of conductive tissue of the heart to interrupt abnormal contractions, thus allowing normal heart rhythm to resume.
commisurotomy
 
Surgical separation of the leaflets of the mitral valve, which have fused together at their "commissures" (points of touching).