Cardiovascular System- The Heart

103 cards

The heart


 
  
Created Oct 11, 2011
by
kgd52891

 

 
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1
Cardiology
 
The study of the heart
2
The heart beats about
 
100,000 times a day or 35 milion beats a year
3
Porpels blood through appr.
 
120,00 km of vessels
4
Two- thirds of the heart lies to the
 
left of the midline
5
Where does the heart lie
 
Mediatinum
6
Shape and size of heart
 
Holoow, cone-shaped, about the size of a closed fist
7
Apex
 
the pointed end on the diaphragm that is directed anterior, inferior, and to the left
8
Base
 
broader, superior, and directed posterior and to the right
9
Surface Projection
 
Surface projection is the outlined shape of an organ on the surface of the body Anterior...
10
Intervernticular Septum
 
Seperates the two ventricles
11
Pericadium- Two layers
 
membrane (sac) that surrounds and protects the heart, it has two layersFibrous pericadriumSerous...
12
Fibrous Pericardium
 
superficial layer, tough, inelastic, prevents overstretching, provides protection, and...
13
Serous
 
deeper layer, thin; (i) parietal layer - fused to the fibrous pericardium (ii) visceral...
14
Epicardium
 
external layer, composed of mesothelium and connective tissue
15
Pericardial Cavity
 
between the two layers) is filled with pericardial fluid which reduces friction
16
Myocardium
 
middle layer, muscular pumping layer, 95% of the heart wall
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Endocardium
 
inner layer, consists of a layer of endothelium covering connective tissue, continuous with...
18
Endocarditis
 
inflammation of the endocardium
19
Cardiac Muscle Characteristics
 
Intercalated discs Desmosomes Gap junctions Sarcoplasmic reticulum
20
4 chambers of the heart
 
Two superior Chambers- right and left artiaTwo inferior chambers right and left ventricles...
21
Pulmonary Pump
 
right atrium and right ventricle, moves deoxygenated blood through the lungs
22
Systemic pump
 
left atrium and left ventricle, pumps oxygenated blood to all systems of the body
23
Three major grooves Sulci
 
Coronay SulcusAnterior Interventricular SuclusPosterior Interventricular suclus
24
Coronay Sulcus
 
- encircles most of heart, demarcates the atria from the ventricles
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Anterior Interventricular Suclus
 
marks the external boundary between right and left ventricles
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Posterior Interventricular suclus
 
marks the external boundary between ventricles on the posterior surface
27
Right Atrium- Receives deoxygenated blood from three veins
 
Superior Vena CavaInferoir Vena CavaCoronary SInus
28
Superior Vena Cava (SVC)
 
- drains blood from parts of the body superior to the heart
29
Inferior Vena Cava (IVC)
 
brings blood from all parts of the body inferior to the diaphragm
30
Coronary sinus
 
receives blood from most of the vessels draining the wall of the heart
31
Pectinate Muscles
 
Anteroir wall that has interal muscular ridges
32
Interatrial septum (wall)
 
Seperates the atria
33
Fossa Ovals
 
oval depression on the septum, remnant of the foramen ovale, a hole between the chambers...
34
Blood flows from the right atrium into the right ventricle through
 
the tricuspid valve (or right atrioventricular valve)
35
Forms most of the anterior surface of the heart
 
Right Ventricle
36
Trabeculae
 
Inner surface lined with ridges
37
Chordae tenineae attach the
 
Tricuspid valve cusps to the papillary muscles
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The  blood passes through the ____ on its way to the lungs
 
pulmonary valve
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The blood continues through the _____ which divides into the right and left ___...
 
pulmonary trunk, pulmonary arteries
40
Left Atrium
 
Forms most of the base of the heart Pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood (two from...
41
Bicuspid valve also called
 
mitral valve or the left atrioventricular valve
42
Left Ventricle
 
Thickest part of the heart Contains trabeculae carneae as well as papillary muscles...
43
The __ and ______ arteries branch from the _____ to supply the walls of the...
 
Right, left coronary artieries, ascenfing aorta
44
The rest of the blood passes into the arch of the aorta and ____ (consisting of ___ aorta...
 
Descending aorta, thoracic aorta and abdimonal aorta
45
The ____ , during fetal life, shunted blood from the pulmonary trunk into the aorta...
 
ductus arteriosus, ligamentum
46
Myocardial Thickness and Function The atria
 
thin-walled as they deliver blood under less pressure
47
Myocardial Thickness and Function- The ventricles
 
have thick walls since they pump blood at a higher pressure and over greater distances The...
48
Myocardial Thickness and Function
 
The left ventricle is thicker because it pumps under higher pressure and over a greater...
49
Fibrous Skeleton of the Heart
 
Dense connective tissue (NOT BONE) embedded in the walls of the heart Consists primarily...
50
Prevents overstretching of the valves as blood passes through them
 
1. right atrioventricular fibrous ring 2. left atrioventricular fibrous ring 3....
51
The four heart valves prevent
 
blackflow of blood in the heart ater blood passes through them
52
Atrioventricular (AV) valves
 
tricuspid valve between the right atrium and the right ventricle bicuspid (mitral)...
53
Two Semilunar (SL) vavles each having three cusps
 
Allow ejection of blood from the ventricles into aorta and pulmonary trunk Prevent...
54
Pulmonary valve between
 
right ventricle and pulmonary trunk
55
Aortic valve between
 
left ventricle and aorta
56
The hear pumps blood into two circuits arranged in series
 
Systematic circulationPulmonary Circulation
57
Systematic circulation
 
left side of heart receives oxygenated blood from the lungs Pumps this blood into the...
58
Pulmonary Circulation
 
the right ventricle pumps blood into the pulmonary trunk which branches into the pulmonary...
59
Two Coronary artieries
 
Left and Right coronary artery
60
Left coronary artery
 
Anterior interventricular Circumflex branch
61
Right coronary artery
 
Posterior interventricular Marginal branch
62
Three coronary veins
 
Great cardica veinAnterior cardiac veinMiddle cardiac vein 
63
Great cardiac vein
 
follows the course of the anterior interventricular artery and then the circumflex artery...
64
Anterior Cardiac vein
 
joins with the small cardiac vein to empty into the coronary sinus
65
Middle Cardiac Vein
 
empties into the coronary sinus
66
Coronary circulation
 
Anastomoses are connections between parallel arteries or veins Coronary sinus is a...
67
Cardiac Conduction System
 
Autorhythmic cells Pacemaker Conduction system
68
AS nodes fires
 
spontaneoulsy 90-100 times per minute
69
AV node firs
 
at 4-50 times per minute
70
If both AV and SA nodes are suppressed fibers in verntricles by themselves fire
 
only 20-40 times per minute
71
Artificial pacemakers needed
 
if pace is too slow
72
Ectopic pacemakers
 
Extra beats forming at other sites caffine and nicotine increases activity
73
Electrocardiogram-ECG or EKG
 
Action potentials of all active cells can be detected and recorded
74
P Wave
 
Atria depolarization
75
P to Q interval
 
Conduction time from atrial to ventricular excitation
76
QRS complex
 
Ventricular depolarization
77
T wave
 
Ventriucular repolarization
78
Cardiac Cycle (Heartbeat
 
Consists of all the events associated with one heartbeat Normally the atria contract...
79
Systole
 
the contraction phase of a heart chamber
80
Diastole
 
the relaxation phase of a heart chamber
81
Cardiac Cycle-major phases
 
At 75 beats/min, one cycle requires 0.8 sec. systole (contraction) and diastole (relaxation)...
82
End diastolic volume (EDV
 
volume in ventricle at end of diastole, about 130ml
83
End systolic volume (ESV)
 
volume in ventricle at end of systole, about 60ml
84
Stroke volume (SV)
 
the volume ejected per beat from each ventricle, about 70ml SV = EDV - ESV
85
Blood pressure in aorta is
 
122 mm  Hg
86
Blood pressue in pulmonary trunk is
 
30 mm Hg
87
Ventricular Pressures
 
Differences in ventricle wall thickness allows heart to push the same amount of blood...
88
Cardiac Output
 
Amount of blood pushed into aorta or pulmonary trunk by ventricle Determined by stroke...
89
CO = SV x HR
 
at 70ml stroke volume & 75 beat/min----5 and 1/4 liters/min entire blood supply...
90
Cardiac reserve is maximum output/output at rest
 
average is 4-5 while athlete is 7-8
91
Heart sounds
 
auscultation
92
Lubb S1
 
due to blood turbulence caused by closing of the AV valves
93
Second sound dupp S2
 
due to blood turbulence cause by closing of the semilunar valves
94
The sounds are best heard over
 
the chest at areas slightly away from the actual location of the valves
95
Risk factors for heart disease
 
Risk factors in heart disease: high blood cholesterol level  high blood pressure  cigarette...
96
Plasma Lipids and Heart Disease
 
Risk factor for developing heart disease is high blood cholesterol level. promotes...
97
Most lipids are transported as lipoproteins
 
low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) very low-density...
98
HDLs
 
remove excess cholesterol from circulation
99
LDLs
 
are associated with the formation of fatty plaques
100
VLDLs
 
contribute to increased fatty plaque formation
101
There are two sources of cholesterol in the body:
 
in foods we ingest formed by liver (genetic predisposition)
102
Desirable Levels of Blood Cholesterol for Adults
 
TC (total cholesterol) under 200 mg/dl LDL under 130 mg/dl HDL over 40 mg/dl Normally,...
103
Coronary Artery disease
 
Heart muscle receiving insufficient blood supply narrowing of vessels---atherosclerosis,...


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