Cardiovascular System- The heart

103 cards

The heart


 
  
Created Oct 11, 2011
by
kgd52891

 

 
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1
Cardiology
 
The study of the heart
2
The heart beats about
 
100,000 times a day or 35 milion beats a year
3
Porpels blood through appr.
 
120,00 km of vessels
4
Two- thirds of the heart lies to the
 
left of the midline
5
Where does the heart lie
 
Mediatinum
6
Shape and size of heart
 
Holoow, cone-shaped, about the size of a closed fist
7
Apex
 

the pointed end on the diaphragm that...

8
Base
 
broader, superior, and directed posterior and to the right
9
Surface Projection
 

Surface projection is the outlined shape...

10
Intervernticular Septum
 
Seperates the two ventricles
11
Pericadium- Two layers
 

membrane (sac) that surrounds and protects the heart, it has two layers

Fibrous pericadrium

Serous...

12
Fibrous Pericardium
 

superficial layer, tough, inelastic,...

13
Serous
 

deeper layer, thin;

14
Epicardium
 
external layer, composed of mesothelium and connective tissue
15
Pericardial Cavity
 
between the two layers) is filled with pericardial fluid which reduces friction
16
Myocardium
 
middle layer, muscular pumping layer, 95% of the heart wall
17
Endocardium
 
inner layer, consists of a layer of endothelium covering connective tissue, continuous with...
18
Endocarditis
 

inflammation of the endocardium

19
Cardiac Muscle Characteristics
 

Intercalated discs

20
4 chambers of the heart
 

Two superior Chambers- right and left artia

Two inferior chambers right and left ventricles...

21
Pulmonary Pump
 

right atrium and right ventricle, moves...

22
Systemic pump
 

left atrium and left ventricle, pumps...

23
Three major grooves Sulci
 

Coronay Sulcus

Anterior Interventricular Suclus

Posterior Interventricular suclus

24
Coronay Sulcus
 
- encircles most of heart, demarcates the atria from the ventricles
25
Anterior Interventricular Suclus
 

marks the external boundary between...

26

Posterior Interventricular suclus

 
marks the external boundary between ventricles on the posterior surface
27
Right Atrium- Receives deoxygenated blood from three veins
 

Superior Vena Cava

Inferoir Vena Cava

Coronary SInus

28
Superior Vena Cava (SVC)
 

- drains blood from parts of the body...

29
Inferior Vena Cava (IVC)
 

brings blood from all parts of the body...

30

Coronary sinus

 
receives blood from most of the vessels draining the wall of the heart
31
Pectinate Muscles
 
Anteroir wall that has interal muscular ridges
32
Interatrial septum (wall)
 
Seperates the atria
33
Fossa Ovals
 
oval depression on the septum, remnant of the foramen ovale, a hole between the chambers...
34
Blood flows from the right atrium into the right ventricle through
 

the tricuspid valve (or right atrioventricular...

35
Forms most of the anterior surface of the heart
 
Right Ventricle
36
Trabeculae
 
Inner surface lined with ridges
37
Chordae tenineae attach the
 
Tricuspid valve cusps to the papillary muscles
38
The  blood passes through the ____ on its way to the lungs
 
pulmonary valve
39

The blood continues through the _____...

 
pulmonary trunk, pulmonary arteries
40
Left Atrium
 

Forms most of the base of the heart

41
Bicuspid valve also called
 
mitral valve or the left atrioventricular valve
42
Left Ventricle
 

Thickest part of the heart

43

The __ and ______ arteries...

 
Right, left coronary artieries, ascenfing aorta
44

The rest of the blood passes into the...

 
Descending aorta, thoracic aorta and abdimonal aorta
45

The ____ , during fetal life, shunted...

 
ductus arteriosus, ligamentum
46

Myocardial Thickness and Function

The...
 
thin-walled as they deliver blood under less pressure
47

Myocardial Thickness and Function- The ventricles...

 

have thick walls since they pump blood...

48
Myocardial Thickness and Function
 

The left ventricle is thicker because...

49

Fibrous Skeleton of the Heart

 

Dense connective tissue (NOT BONE) embedded...

50

Prevents overstretching of the valves...

 

1. right atrioventricular fibrous ring...

51
The four heart valves prevent
 
blackflow of blood in the heart ater blood passes through them
52

Atrioventricular (AV) valves

 

tricuspid valve between the right atrium...

53
Two Semilunar (SL) vavles each having three cusps
 

Allow ejection of blood from the ventricles...

54
Pulmonary valve between
 
right ventricle and pulmonary trunk
55
Aortic valve between
 
left ventricle and aorta
56
The hear pumps blood into two circuits arranged in series
 

Systematic circulation

Pulmonary Circulation

57
Systematic circulation
 

left side of heart receives oxygenated...

58
Pulmonary Circulation
 

the right ventricle pumps blood into...

59
Two Coronary artieries
 
Left and Right coronary artery
60
Left coronary artery
 

Anterior interventricular

61
Right coronary artery
 

Posterior interventricular

62
Three coronary veins
 

Great cardica vein

Anterior cardiac vein

Middle cardiac vein

 

63
Great cardiac vein
 

follows the course of the anterior interventricular...

64
Anterior Cardiac vein
 
joins with the small cardiac vein to empty into the coronary sinus
65
Middle Cardiac Vein
 
empties into the coronary sinus
66
Coronary circulation
 

Anastomoses are connections between...

67
Cardiac Conduction System
 

Autorhythmic cells

68
AS nodes fires
 
spontaneoulsy 90-100 times per minute
69
AV node firs
 
at 4-50 times per minute
70
If both AV and SA nodes are suppressed fibers in verntricles by themselves fire
 
only 20-40 times per minute
71
Artificial pacemakers needed
 
if pace is too slow
72
Ectopic pacemakers
 

Extra beats forming at other sites

caffine and nicotine increases activity

73

Electrocardiogram-ECG or EKG

 

Action potentials of all active cells...

74
P Wave
 
Atria depolarization
75
P to Q interval
 
Conduction time from atrial to ventricular excitation
76
QRS complex
 
Ventricular depolarization
77
T wave
 
Ventriucular repolarization
78
Cardiac Cycle (Heartbeat
 

Consists of all the events associated...

79
Systole
 
the contraction phase of a heart chamber
80
Diastole
 
the relaxation phase of a heart chamber
81
Cardiac Cycle-major phases
 

At 75 beats/min, one cycle requires...

82
End diastolic volume (EDV
 

volume in ventricle at end of diastole,...

83

End systolic volume (ESV)

 

volume in ventricle at end of systole,...

84

Stroke volume (SV)

 

the volume ejected per beat from each...

85
Blood pressure in aorta is
 
122 mm  Hg
86
Blood pressue in pulmonary trunk is
 
30 mm Hg
87
Ventricular Pressures
 

Differences in ventricle wall thickness...

88
Cardiac Output
 

Amount of blood pushed into aorta or...

89

CO = SV x HR

 

at 70ml stroke volume & 75 beat/min----5...

90

Cardiac reserve is maximum output/output...

 

average is 4-5 while athlete is 7-8

91
Heart sounds
 
auscultation
92
Lubb S1
 
due to blood turbulence caused by closing of the AV valves
93
Second sound dupp S2
 
due to blood turbulence cause by closing of the semilunar valves
94
The sounds are best heard over
 
the chest at areas slightly away from the actual location of the valves
95
Risk factors for heart disease
 

Risk factors in heart disease:

96

Plasma Lipids and Heart Disease

 

Risk factor for developing heart disease...

97

Most lipids are transported as lipoproteins

 

low-density lipoproteins (LDLs)

98
HDLs
 
remove excess cholesterol from circulation
99
LDLs
 
are associated with the formation of fatty plaques
100
VLDLs
 
contribute to increased fatty plaque formation
101

There are two sources of cholesterol...

 

in foods we ingest

102

Desirable Levels of Blood Cholesterol...

 

TC (total cholesterol) under 200 mg/dl

103
Coronary Artery disease
 

Heart muscle receiving insufficient...

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