Cancer Medicine Vocabulary, Chapter 19

Chapter 19, Cancer Medicine Vocabulary, Language Of Medicine, 8th Edition
 
Created Dec 27, 2009
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marysummer
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adjuvant therapy
Assisting primary treatment.
alkylating agents
Synthetic chemicals containing alkyl groups that interfere with DNA synthesis.
anaplasia
Loss of differentiation of cells; reversion to a more primitive cell type.
angiogenesis
Process of forming new blood vessels.
antibiotics
Chemical substances, produced by bacteria or primitive plants.
antimetabolites
Chemicals that prevent cell division by inhibiting formation of substances necessary to make...
antimitotics
Drugs that block mitosis (cell division). 
apoptosis
Programmed cell death.
benign tumor
Noncancerous growth (neoplasm).
biological response modifiers
Substances produced by normal cells that either directly block tumor growth or stimulate the...
biological therapy
Use of the body's own defenses to destroy tumor cells.
carcinogens
Agents that cause cancer; chermicals and drugs, radiation, and viruses.
carcinoma
Cancerous tumor made up of cells of epithelial origin.
cellular oncogenes
Pieces of DNA that, when broken or dislocated, can cause a normal cell to become malignant.
chemotherapy
Treatment with drugs.
combination chemotherapy
Use of several chemotherapeutic agents together for the treatment of tumors.
dedifferentiation
Loss of differentiation of cells; reversion to a more primitive, embryonic cell type; anaplasia...
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
Genetic material within the nucleus of a cell; controls cell division and protein synthesis.
differentiating agents
Drugs that promote tumor cells to differentiate, stop growing and die.
differentiation
Specialization of cells; unspecialized cells are modified and altered to form specific and...
electron beams
Low-energy beams of radiation for treatment of skin or surface tumors.
encapsulated
Surrounded by a capsule; benign tumors are encapsulated.
external beam radiation
Radiation applied to a tumor from a distant source.
fields
Dimensions of the size of radiation used to treat a tumor from a specific angle.
fractionation
Giving radiation in small, repeated doses.
genetic screening
Family members are tested to determine whether they have inherited a cancer-causing gene.
grading of tumors
Evaluating the degree of maturity of tumor cells or indication of malignant transformation.
gray (Gy)
Unit of absorbed radiation dose.
gross description of tumors
Visual appearance of tumors to the naked eye:  cystic, fungating, inflammatory, medullary,...
infiltrative
Extending beyond normal tissue boundaries.
invasive
Having the ability to enter and destroy surrounding tissue.
irradiation
Exposure to any form of radiant energy such as light, heat or x-rays.
linear accelerator
Large electronic device that produces high-energy x-ray beams for treatment of deep-seated...
malignant tumor
Tending to become worse and result in death; having the characteristics of invasiveness, anaplasia...
mesenchymal
Embryonic connective tissue.
metastasis
Spread of a malignant tumor to a secondary site; literally, beyond control.
microscopic description of tumors
Appearance of tumors when viewed under a mcroscope: alveolar, carcinoma in situ, diffuse, dysplastic,...
mitosis
Replication of cells; a stage in a cell's life cycle involving the dproduction of two identical...
mixed-tissue tumors
Tumors composed of different types of tissue (epithelial as well as connective tissue).
modality
Method of treatment, such as surgery, chemotherapy or radiation.
molecularly targeted drugs
Anticancer drugs designed to block the function of growth factors, their receptors and signaling...
morbidity
Condition of being diseased; describing damage to normal tissues.
mucinous
Containing mucus.
mutation
Change in genetic material (DNA) of a cell; may be caused by chemicals, radiation, or viruses...
neoplasm
New growth; benign or malignant tumors.
nuleotide
Unit of DNA (gene) composed of a sugar, phosphate and a base.  The sequence or arrangement...
oncogene
Region of DNA in tumor cells (cellular oncogene) or a viruses that cause cancer (viral oncogene).
palliative
Relieving but not curing symptoms.
pedunculated
Possessing a stem or stalk (peduncle); characteristic of some polypoid tumors.
pharmacokinetics
Study of the distribution in and removal of drugs from the body over a period of time.
photon therapy
Radiation therapy using energy in the form of x-rays or gamma rays.
protocol
Detailed plan for treatment of an illness.
proton therapy
Subatomic particles (protons) produced by a cyclotron deposit an absorbed dose of radiation...
radiation
Energy carried by a stream of particles.
radiocurable tumor
Tumor cells that are destroyed by radiation therapy.
radioresistant tumor
Tumor cells that require large doses of radiation therapy.
radiosensitive tumor
Tumor in which radiation can cause the death of cells without serious damage to  surrounding...
radiotherapy
Treatment of tumors using radiation; radiation oncology.
relapse
Return of symptoms of disease.
remission
Partial or complete disappearance of symptoms of disease.
ribonucleic acid (RNA)
Cellular substance that, along with DNA, plays an important role in protein synthesis.
sarcoma
Cancerous tumor derived from connective or flesh tissue.
serous
Pertaining to a thin, watery fluid (serum).
sessile
Having no stem; characteristic of some polypoid tumors.
simulation
Study using CT scan or MRI to map treatment before RT is given. 
solid tumor
Tumor composed of a mass of cells.
staging of tumors
System of evaluating the extent of spread of tumors.
stereotactic radiosurgery
Doses of radiation delivered under stereotactic (highly precise) guidance (gamma knife surgery)
steroids
Complex, naturally occurring chemicals, such as hormones, that are used in cancer chemotherapy.
surgical procedures to treat cancer
Methods of removing cancerous tissue: cryosurgery, cauterization, en block resection, excisional...
viral oncogenes
Pieces of DNA from viruses that infect a normal cell and cause it to become malignant.
virus
An infectious agent that reproduces by entering a host cell and using the host's genetic material...


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