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Business Management: Leadership Test #2


  
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communication
 
the process or transmitting information from one oerson of place to another
perception
 
the process by which individuals attend to, organize, interpret, and retain information from their environments
perceptual filters
 
the personality, psychology, or experience-based differences that influence eople to ignore or pay attention to particular stimuli
selective perception
 
the tendancy to notice and accept objects and information consistent with our values, beliefs, and expectations, while ignoring or screening out or not accepting inconsistent information
closure
 
the tendancy to fillin gaps of missing information by assuming that what we dont know is consistent with that we already know
attribution theory
 
the theory that we all have a basic need to understand and explain the causes of other peoples behavior
defensive bias
 
the tendancy for people to perceive themselves as personally and situationally similar to someone who is having difficulty or trouble
fundamental attribution error
 
the tendancy to ignore external causes of behavior and to attribute oher peoples actions to internal causes
self-serving bias
 
the tendancy to overestimate our value by attributing successes to ourselves (internal causes) and attributing failures to others or the environment (enternal causes)
encoding
 
putting a mesage into a written, verbal, of symbolic form that can be recognized and understood by the receiver
decoding
 
the process by which the receiver translates the written, verbal, or symbolic form of a message into an understood message
feedback to sender
 
in the communication process, a return message to the sender that indicates the receiver's understanding of the message
noise
 
anything that interferes with the transmission of the intended message
conduit metaphor
 
the mistaken assumption that senders can pipe their intended messages directly into the heads of receivers with perfect clarity and without noise of perceptual filters inerfering with the receivers understanding of the message
formal communication channel
 
the system of official channels that carry organizationally approved messages and information
downward communication
 
communication that flows from higher to lower levels in an organization
upward communication
 
communication that flows from lower to higher levels in an organization
horizontal communication
 
communication that flows among managers and workers who are at the same organizational level
informational communication channel
 
the transmission of messages from employee to employee outside of formal communication channels
coaching
 
communicating with someone for the direct purpose of improving the persons on-the-job performance or behavior
counseling
 
communicating with someone about non-job-related issues that may be affecting of interfering with someones performance
nonverbal communication
 
any communication that doesnt involve words
kinesics
 
movements of the body and face
paralanguage
 
the pitch, rate, tone, volume and speaking pattern of ones voice
communication medium
 
the method used to deliver an oral or written message
hearing
 
the act or process of perceiving sounds
listening
 
making a conscious effort to hear
active listening
 
assuming half the responsibility for successful communication by actively giving the speaker nonjudgmental feedback that shows you've accurately heard what they said
empathetic listening
 
understanding the speakers perspective and personal frame of reference and giving feedback the conveys that understanding to the speaker
destructive feedback
 
feedback that disapproves without any intention of being helpful and almost always causes a negative of defensive reaction in the recipient
constructive feedback
 
feedback intended to be helpful, corrective, and encouraging
cross-cultural communication
 
transmitting information from a person in one country or culture to a person from another country of culture
affective cultures
 
cultures in which people display emotions and feelings when communicating mkkk
neutral cultures
 
cultures in which people do not display emotions and feelings when communicating
address terms
 
cultural norms that establish whether you should address business people by their first names, family names, or title
monochronic cultures
 
cultures in which people tend to do one thing at a time and view time as linear
polychronic cultures
 
cultures in which people tend to do more than one thing at a time and view time as circular
appointment time
 
a cultural norm for how punctual you must be when showing up for scheduled appointments or meetings
schedule time
 
a cultural norm for the time by which scheduled projects of jobs should actually be completed
discussion time
 
a cultural norm for how much time should be spent in discussion with others
aquaintance time
 
a cultural norm for how much time you must spend getting to know someone before the person is prepared to do business with you
online discussion forum
 
the in-house equlvalent of internet newgroups. you can ask questions and share knowledge on the internet
televised/ videotaped speeches and meetings
 
speeches ad meetings originally made to a smaller audience that are either simultaneously broadcast to other locations in the company or videotaped for subsequent distribution or viewing
organized silence
 
when employees withhold information about organizational problems or issues
company hotlines
 
phone numbers that anyone in the company can call anonymously to leave information for upper mamangement
survey feedback
 
information that is collected by surveys from organizational members and then complied, disseminated, and used to develop action plans for improvement
blog
 
a personal website that provides personal opinions or reccomendations, news summaries, and reader comments

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