The Brain, Etc.   

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The Brain (section 15)

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deep lesioning
 
insertion of a think, insulated wire into the brain through which an electrical current is sent that destroys brain cells at the tip of the wire
electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB)
 
milder electrical current that causes neurons to react as if they had received a message
Human Brain Damage
 
orbital frontal cortex removed by accident--hard worker, nice before accident--lazy, rude, began drinking after accident
Electroencephalograph (EEG)
 
machine designed to record the brain wave patterns produced by electrical activity of the surface of the brain
computed tomography (CT)
 
brain imaging method using computer controlled x-rays of the brain
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
 
brain imaging method using radio waves and magnetic fields of the body to produce detailed images of the brain
functional MRI (fMRI)
 
computer makes a sort of 'movie' of changes in the activity of the brain using images from different time periods
Position emission tomography (PET)
 
brain-imaging method in which a radioactive sugar is injected into the subject and a computer compiles a color-coded image of the activity of the brain with lighter colors indicating more activity
Medulla
 
the first large swelling at the top of the spinal cord, forming the lowest part of the brain, which is responsible for life-sustaining functions such as breathing, swallowing, and heart rate
pons
 
the larger swelling above the medulla that connects the top of the brain to the bottom and that plays a part in sleep, dreaming, left-right body coordination, and arousal
Reticular formation (RF)
 
an area of neurons running though the middle of the medulla and the pons and slightly beyond that is responsible for selective attention
cerebellum
 
part of the lower brain located behind the pons, controls and coordinates involuntary, rapid, fine motor movement
limbic system
 
a group of several brain structures located under the cortex and involved in learning, emotion, memory, and motivation
thalamus
 
part of the limbic system located in the center of the brain, this structure relays sensory information from the lower part of the brain to the proper areas of the cortex and processes some sensory information before sending it to its proper area
hypothalamus
 
small structure in the brain located below the thalamus and directly above the pituitary gland, responsible for motivational behavior such as sleep, hunger, thirst, and sex
hippocampus
 
curved structure located within each temporal lobe, responsible for the formation of long-term memories and the storage of memory for location of objects
amygdala
 
brain structure located neat the hippocampus responsible for fear responses and memory of fear
Limbic system parts
 
thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, hippocampus
cortex
 
outermost covering of the brain consisting of closely packed neurons, responsible for higher thought processes and interpretation of sensory input
corticalization
 
wrinkling of cortex; allows a much larger area of cortical cells to exist in the small space inside the skull
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