The Blood.

61 cards

Terms and Definitions regarding blood.


 
  
Created Sep 28, 2009
by
carriefletcher91

 

 
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1
Blood
 
§The only fluid tissue in the human body -- Classified as a connective tissue...
2
Components of blood
 
Living cells (formed elements) -- Non-Living Matrix (plasma)
3
Centrifuged Blood
 
§Erythrocytes sink to the bottom (45% of blood, a percentage known as the hematocrit)...
4
Physical Characteristics of Blood
 
§Color range: oxygen-rich = scarlet red : oxygen-poor = dull red -- pH must remain...
5
Blood Plasma
 
§Composed of approximately 90% water -- Includes many dissolved substances: Nutrients, Salts...
6
Plasma Proteins
 
§Most abundant solutes in plasma -- Most plasma proteins are made by liver -- Various...
7
Albumin & C 
-- regulates osmotic pressure -- help to stem blood loss when a blood vessel is injured -- help...
8
Acidosis & Alkalosis
 
§-- blood becomes too acidic -- blood becomes too basic -- In each scenario,...
9
§Erythrocytes & Leukocytes
 
-- Red blood cells (RBCs) -- White blood cells (WBCs) -- biconcave disks; sacs of...
10
Neutrophils
 
§Multilobed nucleus with fine granules -- Act as phagocytes at active sites of...
11
Eosinophils
 
§Large brick-red cytoplasmic granules -- Found in response to allergies and parasitic...
12
Basophils
 
§Have histamine-containing granules -- Initiate inflammation 
13
Lymphocytes
 
§Nucleus fills most of the cell -- Play an important role in the immune response 
14
Monocytes
 
§Largest of the white blood cells -- Function as macrophages -- Important...
15
Platelets 
 
§Derived from ruptured multinucleate cells (megakaryocytes) -- Needed for the...
16
§Erythrocytes (red blood cells or RBCs) 
 
§Main function is to carry oxygen -- Anatomy of circulating erythrocytes: Biconcave...
17
§Hemoglobin 
 
§Iron-containing protein -- Binds strongly, but reversibly, to oxygen -- Each...
18
Homeostatic imbalance of RBCs
 
§Anemia -- Sickle cell anemia (SCA) -- Polycythemia 
19
§Anemia & Polycythemia
 
§-- a decrease in the oxygen-carrying ability of the blood -- an excessive...
20
Hemorrhagic Anemia
 
-- sudden hemorrhage -- decrease in RBC number
21
Hemolytic Anemia
 
-- lysis of RBCs as a result of bacterial infections -- decrease in RBC number
22
Pernicious Anemia
 
-- lack of vitamin B12 -- decrease in RBC number
23
Aplastic Anemia
 
-- depression/deconstruction of bone marrow by cancer, radiation, of certain medications --...
24
Iron Deficiency Anemia
 
-- lack of iron in diet or prolonged bleeding which depletes iron reserves needed to make hemoglobin...
25
Sickle Cell Anemia (SCA)
 
-- genetic defect leads to abnormal hemoglobin, which becomes sharp and sickle-shaped under...
26
Leukocytes (white blood cells or WBCs)
 
§Crucial in the body’s defense against disease -- These are complete cells,...
27
§Leukocytosis §
 
WBC count above 11,000 leukocytes/mm -- generally indicates an infection 
28
§Leukopenia 
 
§Abnormally low leukocyte level -- Commonly caused by certain drugs such as anticancer...
29
§Leukemia §
 
Bone marrow becomes cancerous, turns outexcess WBC 
30
§Granulocytes §
 
Granules in their cytoplasm can be stained -- Possess lobed nuclei -- Include neutrophils,...
31
§Agranulocytes §
 
Lack visible cytoplasmic granules -- Nuclei are spherical, oval, or kidney-shaped -- Include...
32
22
 
22
33
Hematopoiesis
 
§Blood cell formation -- Occurs in red bone marrow -- All blood cells are...
34
§Hemocytoblast Differentiation 
 
§Lymphoid stem cell produces lymphocytes -- Myeloid stem cell produces all other...
35
Formation of Erythrocytes
 
§Unable to divide, grow, or synthesize proteins - Wear out in 100 to 120 days...
36
Control of Erythrocyte Production
 
§Rate is controlled by a hormone (erythropoietin) - Kidneys produce most erythropoietin...
37
Formation of White Blood Cells & Platelets
 
§Controlled by hormones: colony stimulating factors (CSFs) & interleukins...
38
Hemostasis
 
§Stoppage of bleeding resulting from a break in a blood vessel -- involves three...
39
§Vascular spasms §
 
Vasoconstriction causes blood vessel to spasm -- Spasms narrow the blood vessel, decreasing...
40
Platelet plug formation
 
§Collagen fibers are exposed by a break in a blood vessel -- Platelets become...
41
Coagulation
 
§Injured tissues release tissue factor (TF) -- PF3 (a phospholipid) interacts...
42
Blood Clotting
 
§Blood usually clots within 3 to 6 minutes -- The clot remains as endothelium...
43
§Thrombus 
 
§A clot in an unbroken blood vessel -- Can be deadly in areas like the heart
44
Embolus
 
§A thrombus that breaks away and floats freely in the bloodstream -- Can later...
45
§Thrombocytopenia 
 
§Platelet deficiency -- Even normal movements can cause bleeding from small blood...
46
Hemophilia
 
§Hereditary bleeding disorder -- Normal clotting factors are missing
47
Transfusions
 
§The only way to replace blood quickly -- Blood must be of the same blood group 
48
Blood Loss
 
§Loss of 15–30% causes weakness -- Loss of over 30% causes shock, which can...
49
Human Blood Groups
 
§Blood contains genetically determined proteins -- Blood is “typed” by using antibodies...
50
 
A substance the body recognizes as foreign, may be attacked by the immune system, over...
51
Type O
 
§ §the lack of both antigens -- can receive type O blood -- Universal donor
52
Type AB
 
the presence of both antigens A & B -- can receive A, B, AB, and O blood -- Universal...
53
Type B
 
The presence of antigen B -- can receive type B & O blood
54
Type A
 
The presence of antigen A -- can receive type A & O blood
55
Rh Blood Groups
 
§Named because of the presence or absence of one of eight Rh antigens (agglutinogen...
56
Rh Dangers During Pregnancy
 
§Danger occurs only when the mother is Rh– and the father is Rh+, and the child...
57
Rh Dangers During Pregnancy cont.
 
§The mismatch of an Rh– mother carrying an Rh+ baby can cause problems...
58
Blood Typing
 
§Blood samples are mixed with anti-A and anti-B serum -- Coagulation or no coagulation...
59
Sites of blood cell formation
 
§The fetal liver and spleen are early sites of blood cell formation -- Bone marrow...
60
§Fetal hemoglobin differs from hemoglobin produced after birth 
 
TRUE
61
§Physiologic jaundice results in infants in which the liver cannot rid the...
 
TRUE


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