Biology Unit 4 Test

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what are the portions of the electromagnetic spectrum?
x-rays, ultraviolet, and infrared.
what process are they used for?
they are used in photosynthesis.
what molecules are stored in the cell?

(carbohydrates-made of c, h, and o) starches, glycogen, glucose-short term
(lipids-c, h, and o) fats, oils-long term
where in the cell are these molecules found?
they are stored in the bonds of atoms.
how does photosynthises work?

proscess by wich all plants, some bacteria, and some protists use light energy to power chemical reactions that convert h2o and co2 into high-energy carbohydrates (glucose) and oxygen (o2)
photosynthises formula?
6co2 + 6h2o --> c6h12o6 +6o2
6carbon dioxide molecules+6water molecules=glucose molecule+6oxygen molecules
what is energy?
the ability to do work.
examples of cellular energy?

nucleoli constructing-ribosomes
ribosomes building-proteins
spindle fibers moving-chromosomes
what is atp?
(3 phosphates) a molecule made in the mitochondria, bonds between phosphate groups can be broken to release energy for cellular processes, provides ready-to-use energy.

adp and amp?
they are atp but with less energy. adp is like a half way charged battery, and amp is a battery that needs to be charged.
van helmont's discovery?
soil does not make a plant grow, the water does.
priestley's discovery
plants give off gas called oxygen.
ingenhousz discovery
plants need sunlight
what is a pigment?
a compound that absorbs some wavelengths and reflects others, causing some cells to have color.

what is chlorophyll?
it is located in the chloroplasts of plant cells.
which parts of the visible light spectrum does chlorophyll absorb the most energy?
red and blue waves
from which parts of the visisble light spectrum does chlorophyll absorbe the least energy?
what is the primary color for most plants?
green, because leaves absorb their chlorophyll t save it until spring.
what factors affect the photosynthesis?
sunlight (light intensity)

cellular resperation?
process that releases energy by breaking down food molecules in the presence of o2; made up of 3 meain chemical pathways: A) glycolysis b)krebs cycle c)the electron transprt chain.

anaerobic respiration/ fermentation
this presses releases very little energy and it exstracts energy without using oxygen. ther are 2 trypes, eash occur in the cyoplasm of different organisms.
step 2 alcoholic fermentation
occuring in the cytoplasm of yeast (a fungus) and many bacteria. this process produces carbon dioxide (a gas allowing bread to rise) and alcohol. 2 atps produced
step 2 lactic acid fermentation
occurs in the cytoplasm of all other organisms. when some fungi and bacteria perform lactic acid fermentation, they make cheese and yogurt. in animals (us) lactic acid fermentation during strenuous exercise causes muscle fatigue and soreness 2 atps produced
aerobic respiration (with oxygen)


step 2: krebs/ citric cycle
occurs in the mitochondria after the glycolysis (cytoplasm) uses o2 to extract more energy from the 2 halves of glucose (pyruvic acid molecules) 2 atps produced
step 3 electron transport chain
occurs in the mitochondria after krebs cycle. it is the aerobic cellular respiration process of extractiong the remaining energy stored in bonds of extracting the remaining energy stored in bonds of molecules produced during the krebs cycle. 32 atps produced!
substances in food that supply the energy and raw materials an organism needs to grow, repair itself and maintain homeostasis.
for animals and humans, what is the most important nutrient?
water, carbohydrates, lipids(fats), proteins, vitamins and minerals.
the most imprtant nutrient, comprising 65- 70% of most animals.
what does water do?
maintains homeostasis (heats and cools slowly), water also enebals blood flow through vessles smoothly and is needed in many reactants.
the sum of all chemical reactions in an organism.
serves as short term energy (fruits,honey, and table sugar) and complex sugars/starches (potatoes, grains, and vegetables) and fiber.
fats-protect organisms-provide padding. insulate-keep body heat in. stor long-term energy. are a larg component of cell membranes and comprise some hormones-steroids.


large polymers-large molecules-made up of amino acids-small molecules. the body can only make 12 of the 20 amino acids needed. the 8 we need to be eaten from our diet. foods high in proein-meat, beans and nuts- are good sources of the essential amino acids.


vitamins- organic molecules (a,b,c,d,e ect.) that help regulate body processes, often in association with enzymes. deficid
inorganic molecules (iron, zinc, mg, ect.) that help regulate body processes and fulfill structural needs. minerals are found in a variety of foods-supplements. long term mineral deficiency may lead to disfunction or death.

adults should be active for at least 30 min. a day and childeren should be active for 60 min.
an increase in size of an image
re3solving/resolution power
how clear the magnified specimen appears
feild of veiw
how much the image is seen through ocular
depth of veiw
how resolute/clear images appear at different distances from the ocular/eyepeice
how and when is energy released during cellular resperation?
it is released by breaking down food molecules.
factors that effect the reate of photosynthises

the amount of light(sunlight)
and carbon dioxide

location of photosynthisis and cellular resp.
cellular resp.-mitochondria

what processes are necessary for atp?
breaking down of glucose in the cellular prosses
how do atp, adp and amp store energy?
they store the energy in the phosphates

how do atp, adp, and amp release energy?
when they need to release energy they break off the bond of a phosphate, releasing energy to an area in the cell that needs it.
anaerobic cellular respiration
(alcoholic fermentation)
location- cytoplasm
energy used-releases 2 atps from 1 glucose
by products-carbon dioxide, alcohol
anaerobic cellular respiration
(lactic acid fermentation)
energy used/stored- releases 2 atps from 1 glucose
by products-lactic acid
aerobic cellular resperation
(krebs cycle and electron transport
reactants-oxygen and glucose
energy used/stored-releases 2+32 atps from 1 glucose
reactants-carbon dioxide, water
location- mitocondria
energy used/stored- gains 1 glucose
by products- glucose

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