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Biology Final

Biology Flash Cards. F
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Side ASide B
The special molecules that have large structures and characteristically made by living organisms are known as __________.
macromolecules
Three of the four macromolecules present in living systems are ________ which means they are built by linking together small, similar chemical monomers.
polymers
Proteins that can carry out catalysis in organisms are called ________.
enzymes
A modified form of cellulose found in the exoskeletons of insects and crustaceans is known as _________.
chitin
Non-polarity and insolubility characterize biological compounds known as _________.
lipids
__________ are polymers containing up to 20 different kinds of naturally occurring amino acids.
proteins
The covalent bonds connecting monomer units in sugars can be formed by the removal of a water molecule. A reaction referred to as __________________.
dehydration
This atom in its unbound state has four valent electrons. These electrons readily form single, double, and even triple bonds among themselves to become stable. This atom is
carbon
Macromolecules are disassembled in ____________ reactions.
hydrolysis
Relatively small organic molecules with a central carbon atom which is bonded to a carboxyl group, an amino group, a carbon containing group, and a hydrogen atom are called
amino acids
Macromolecules that are used by organisms to store hereditary information are called
DNA molecules
DNA, RNA, and ATP contain functional units known as
nucleotides
Which of the following is not a property of carbon?
All compounds made from carbon are soluble in water.
Which of the following is not a macromolecule?
water
All of the following are examples of functional groups in cells except  
-H2O
Carbohydrates are polymers formed of structural units called
monosaccharides
Biological membranes contain bilayers of which of the following lipids?
phospholipids
A chain of amino acids linked together end-to-end can only be found in a
polypeptide
The specific amino acid sequence in a protein is its
primary structure
Alpha helix and beta pleated sheets are examples of which level of protein structure?
secondary

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