BIOLOGY CH. 41

BIO CH. 41.
 
Created Nov 16, 2011
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Primate with non-pendulus scrotum
Gibbon
Produce sperm
Testes
Where sperm is stored
Epididymis
Conduct sperm from the testes to the urethra
Vas deferens
Secretes fructose to give sperm energy to move
Seminal Vesicle
Secretes buffer for sperm to survive in acidic vagina
prostate gland
Primary sexual organ where genes are packaged into gametes
Gonads
Secretes mucus
Bulbourethral gland
2nd leading cause of death in American Men
Prostate Cancer
Ways to detect prostate cancer
Digital rectal examBlood tests for prostate specific antigen; a tumor maker.
Almost 200,000 cases per year30,000 resulting in death
Testicular Cancer
Testicular Cancer can be detected by
self-examination of testes feeling for hardening or lumps
ability to make sperm
Spermatogenesis
divides by mitosis to form primary spermatocyte.
Spermatogonium
produces haploid spermatids
Meiosis
mature to become sperm.
Spermatids
-line inside the seminiferous tubules-Nourish the developing sperm
Steroli cells
-lie between the seminiferous tubules-secrete testosterone
Interstitial cells
The fertile period for a human female occurs on a cyclic basis.
Menstrual Cycle
Cycle lasts ____ days
28
days 1-5; 6-13
Follicular phase
day 14
Ovulation
days 15-28
Luteal phase
First period(usually between ages 11-14)
Menarche
Last period
Menopause
-Follicle grows and matures-LH surge -> Ovulation-Corpus luteum forms
Ovarian Cycle
Male Hormonal Cycle
LOOK IT UP
Female Hormonal Cycle
LOOK IT UP
process in which a strand of DNA is used as a template for the manufacture of a strand of...
transcription
process in which the information encoded in a strand of mRNA is used to construct a protein?...
translation
process in which pre-mRNA is edited into mRNA?
RNA processing
Polypeptides are assembled from
amino acids
RNA processing converts the RNA transcript into
mRNA
In eukaryotic cells the first step in protein synthesis is the
transferring of information from DNA to messenger RNA
What is the primary job of DNA?
It provides blueprints for proteins.
What is another name for RNA synthesis?
transcription
The sequence of nitrogen-containing bases on one strand of DNA most directly determines the...
amino acids in a protein molecule.
The "one-gene, one-enzyme" hypothesis concluded that
each allele codes for a single type of protein.
Which of the following is found in RNA but NOT in DNA?
uracil
The process of copying genetic information from DNA to RNA is called:
transcription.
Which of the following molecules transfers information from the nucleus to the cytoplasm?...
mRNA
How can RNA be distinguished from DNA?
RNA has one polynucleotide strand per molecule.
correctly illustrates the pairing of DNA and RNA nucleotides?
GTTACG CAAUGC
Transcription is the process of:
synthesizing an RNA molecule using a DNA template.
What ovarian hormones are involved in the menstrual cycle?
estrogen and progesterone
What happens to the human egg if it is not fertilized?
The corpus luteum disintegrates, hormone levels fall, the overgrown endometrium disintegrates,...
oogenesis
egg production in the human ovaries
The purpose of the epididymis
storage of sperm
What hormone is released in both sexes by the hypothalamus to initiate puberty?
gonadotropin-releasing hormone
Sperm become capable of movement while in the
epididymis
Which pituitary secretion stimulates sperm production?
FSH follicule stimulating hormone
Which pituitary secretion stimulates the testes to secrete androgens?
LHLuteinizing hormone
Sperm develop in the
seminiferous tubules
A fertilized egg usually implants itself and develops in the
uterus
A rapid increase in the _____ level stimulates ovulation.
luteinizing hormone
eggs from a female developing into offspring without being fertilized
parthenogenesis
What ovarian hormones are involved in the menstrual cycle?
estrogen and progesterone
the most common bacterial STD?
chlamydia
Puberty is triggered when brain maturation causes the hypothalamus to secrete
gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH).
The development of secondary sexual characteristics is due to
increased levels of estrogen or testosterone
In men, as testosterone levels increase, LH levels:
decrease
stimulates the release of FSH and LH.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
What is the function of an acrosome?
It contains enzymes that dissolve the protective layers around the egg.
In the male, the primary target of FSH is
Sertoli cells.
stimulates the production of testosterone?
LH
Mature sperm are stored in the
epididymis
The epididymis connects the
testis and the vas deferens
path sperm travel on their way out of the male
seminiferous tubules → epididymis → vas deferens → urethra
If the prostate gland failed to add its contribution to semen
the semen would not be fluid, due to lack of enzymes


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