Biology - Cell Structure & Function Chapter 3

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Created Feb 22, 2011
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danav

 

 
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1
Three main points of Cell Theory
 

1) All living things are made up of cells

2) Cell are the basic units of structure and...

2
A cell's size is limited by its ______.
 
Surface area to volume ratio
3
What must a cell be large enough to do?
 

a) hold its organells

b) perform chemical reactions

4
What must a cell be small enough to do?
 

Have enough surface area to supply its volume with nutrients

5
Surface area equation
 
length X width X number of surfaces
6
Volume equation
 
length X width X height
7
Surface area to volume ratio equation
 

surface area

------------------

volume

8
As a cell grows, what happens to its surface area to volume ratio?
 
It decreases
9

A cell cube has 3cm/side, what is its:

1) surface area

2) volume

3)...

 

1) 54cm2

2) 27cm2

3) 2:1

10
When a cell grows and it's S.A. to V.R. decreases, what effects does this have of diffusion?
 
Diffusion decreases and becomes less efficient
11

When a cell divides, what happens to its surface area and volume?

 

Why?

 

They decrease causing the ratio to increase and diffusion rate to increase.

 

Because...

12
Is cell division beneficial to the rate of diffusion?
 
Yes
13

How big is a prokaryote cell?

 

2 - 8 micrometers

 

14
Does a prokaryote cell have a nucleus?
 
No
15
Where is DNA located in a prokaryote cell?
 
In the cytoplasm
16
Does a prokaryote cell has a cell wall? +
 
Yes, non-cellulose
17
Are there organelles in the prokaryote cell? +
 
A few, but they are nonmembranous
18
Is there mobility in a prokaryote cell? Flagellum?
 
Yes, there is one or more flagellum.
19
What are the features of a bacillus cell?
 

a) rod shaped

b) areobic (needs oxygen)

c) often occurs in chain

20
What are the features of a cuccus cell?
 

a) spherical

b) occurs singular, paired or chains of clusters

21
What re the features of a spirrillum cell?
 
a) spiral shape
22
Gram positive's cell wall & stain
 

Peptidoglycan

 

Blue/purple

23
Gram negative's cell wall & stain
 

Peptidoglycan & lipopolysaccharide

 

Red/organge

24

Facilitated transport goes from _____ to _____ concentration.

 

Why...

 

High to low

 

Because no energy is needed, only a protein carrier

 

Embedded...

25

Active transport goes from _____ to _____ concentration.

 

Why is ATP...

 

Low to high

 

Because solute must travel against concentration

 

Pumps

26
What are the special proteins on bilayer called?
 
Pumps
27
What does APT stand for?
 
Adenosine Triphosphate
28

Endoctosis:

 

Does not involve/cannot enter what?

 

Qualitative...

 

Protein channels

 

Large

 

They fuse to outer...

29
What is phagocytosis?
 
Cell eating - white blood cell engulfs and digests a pathogen
30
What is pinocytosis?
 
Ingestion of liquid
31
What is exocytosis?
 

Process by which a cell will expel a molecule it has made

 

Secretory ...

32
What is the nucleus composition?
 

Double membrane (nuclear envelope)

 

Porous (nuclear pores)

 

Semifluid...

33
What is the function of the nucleus?
 

DNA: contains genes (recipe) for protein synthesis

 

Process called...

34
Where is the nucleolus found?
 
Inside the nucleus
35
What is the composition of the nucleolus?
 
Dense mass of rRNA, ribosome subunit proteins
36

What is:

rRNA

tRNA

mRNA

 

ribosomal ribonucleic acid 

transfer ribonucleic acid

messenger RNA

37
What is a ribosome?
 
the protein manufacturing machinery of all living cells
38

In what cells is the nucleus found?

 
Plant and animal cells
39
In what cells is the Ribosome found?
 
Plant, animal and prokaryotes cells
40
What does rER stand for?
 
rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
41
Where is the ribosome located?
 

a) studded on the exterior surface of rER

 

b) cytoplasm-free ribosomes

42
What is the composition of the ribosome?
 

Two subunits:

- one smaller than the other

- each with a unique mix of proteins

43
What is the function of the ribosome?
 
Work bench for sythesis of the polypeptide chain (1*)
44
What is the process of the ribosome?
 
Translation
45
What is DNA's special feature and role?
 

SF: genetic information

R: template for mRNA synthesis during transcription

46
What is mRNA's special feature and role?
 

SF: codons

R: sequences of 3 RNA bases (codon) complementary to DNA

47
What tRNA's special feature and role?
 

SF: anticodon

R: sequence of 3 RNA bases (anticodon) complentary to mRNA codon

48
What is rRNA's special feature and role?
 

SF: ribosome

R: site of polypeptide synthesis during translation

49
What is amino acid's special feature and role?
 

SF: building block of proteins

R: transported to ribosome by tRNA during translation

50
What is protein's special function and role?
 

SF: macromolecule essential to life

R: amino acid joined in a specific and predetermined...

51
Where are the endoplasmic reticulum (rough and smooth) found?
 
In plant and animal cells
52
Where is the rough endoplasmic reticulum located?
 
Nuclear envelope
53
What is the compostion of the rough endoplasmic reticulum?
 

Membranous

 

Interconnected tubes/sacs

 

outside surface...

54
Where is the smooth endoplasmic reticulum located?
 
The rough endoplasmic reticulum
55
How is the smooth endoplasmic reticulum composed?
 

Membranous interconnected tubules

 

No ribosomes

56
What are the 5 functions of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum?
 

1) synthesis of lipids

 

2) produces testosterone and estrogen

 

3)...

57
In what cells is the golgi apparatus found?
 
Plant and animal cells
58
What is the location of the golgi apparatus?
 
Between the rER and sER and plasma membrane.
59
What is the composition of the golgi apparatus?
 

Membranous

 

Series of flat sacs

 

Vacules "bubbling"

60
What is the function of the golgi apparatus?
 

Packaging and receiving secretion:

 

Receive from rER: protein and...

61
In what cells are the lysosomes found?
 
Animal cells
62
Where is the lysosome located?
 
Cytoplasm
63
What is the composition of the lysosome?
 

Membranous vacuole

 

Contains digective enzymes

64
What are the 4 functions of the lysosome?
 

1) digestion: enzymes digest carbs, lipids, protein and nucleic acid

 

2)...

65
In what cells are the vacuoles found?
 
In the plant and animal cells
66
What is the composition of the vacuoles?
 
Membrane bound various sizes and functions
67
In what cells is the peroxisomes found?
 
Plant and animal cells
68
What is the composition of the peroxisome?
 
Membrane vacuole containing many enzymes
69
In what cells are the mitochondria found?
 
Animal and plant cells
70
Where is the mitochandria located?
 
Cytoplasm
71
What does the mitochandria look like?
 
7 micrometers length, bean shape brown
72

What is the composition of the mitochondria?

 

Double membrane

 

Outer membrane: porous

 

Inner...

73
What is the function of the mitochondria?
 

Site of cellular respiration: glucose to ATP

 

ATP synthesis

74
What are the unique features of mitochondria?
 

a) ability to reproduce/divide

b) liver cell & muscle fiber: greater than 1000...

75
In what cells is the cytoskeleton found?
 
In the plant and animal cells
76
What does the cytoskeleton of a cell consist of?
 
Protein fibers forming a thick network with the cytoplasm
77
What are the primary functions of the cytoskeleton?
 
Framework, support, movement of organelles and anchoring organelles are in place.
78
What are 3 types of proteins of fibers which make up a cytoskeleton?
 

1) microfilament

2) intermiate filaments

3) microtubules

79
Microfilament
 

- small fibersof actin protein

- found in muscle tissue and account for muscle cantraction...

80
Intermediate filaments
 

- slightly larger diameter than microfilaments

- consists of fibrous proteins

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