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Biology Campbell

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The amount of energy that reactants must absorb before a chemical reaction will start.
activation energy
The specific portion of an enzyme that attaches to the substrate by means of weak chemical bonds.
active site
A specific receptor site on some part of an enzyme molecule remote from the active site.
allosteric site
A metabolic pathway that synthesizes a complex molecule from simpler compounds.
anabolic pathway 
An adenine-containing nucleoside triphosphate that releases free energy when its phosphate bonds are hydrolyzed. This energy is used to drive endergonic reactions in cells.
ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
The study of how organisms manage their energy resources.
bioenergetics 
A metabolic pathway that releases energy by breaking down complex molecules to simpler compounds.
catabolic pathway
A chemical agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction.
catalyst 
Energy stored in the chemical bonds of molecules; a form of potential energy.
chemical energy
A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by entering the active site in place of the substrate whose structure it mimics.
competitive inhibitor
An interaction of the constituent subunits of a protein whereby a conformational change in one subunit is transmitted to all the others.
cooperativity
A nonspontaneous chemical reaction in which free energy is absorbed from the surroundings.
endergonic reaction
In cellular metabolism, the use of energy released from an exergonic reaction to drive an endergonic reaction.
energy coupling
The capacity to do work (to move matter against an opposing force).
energy
A quantitative measure of disorder or randomness, symbolized by S
entropy
A spontaneous chemical reaction in which there is a net release of free energy.
exergonic reaction
A method of metabolic control in which the end product of a metabolic pathway acts as an inhibitor of an enzyme within that pathway.
feedback inhibition
The principle of conservation of energy. Energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed.
first law of thermodynamics 
 The initial investment of energy necessary to start a chemical reaction; also called activation energy.
free energy of activation
The portion of a system's energy that can perform work when temperature is uniform throughout the system.
free energy 
The change in shape of the active site of an enzyme so that it binds more snugly to the substrate, induced by entry of the substrate.
induced fit 
The energy of motion, which is directly related to the speed of that motion. Moving matter does work by imparting motion to other matter.
kinetic energy
The totality of an organism's chemical reactions, consisting of catabolic and anabolic p
metabolism
A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by binding to a location remote from the active site, changing its conformation so that it no longer binds to the substrate.
noncompetitive inhibitor
A molecule that has been the recipient of a phosphate group.
phosphorylated
The energy stored by matter as a result of its location or spatial arrangement.
potential energy
The principle whereby every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe. Ordered forms of energy are at least partly converted to heat, and in spontaneous...
second law of thermodynamics
The reactant on which an enzyme works.
substrate 
(1) The study of energy transformations that occur in a collection of matter. See first law of thermodynamics and second law of thermodynamics. (2) A phenomenon in...
thermodynamics
 A globular protein that links into chains, two of which twist helically about each other, forming microfilaments in muscle and other contractile elements in cells.
actin
A eukaryotic cell organelle consisting of a 9 + 0 arrangement of microtubule triplets; may organize the microtubule assembly of a cilium or flagellum; structurally identical...
basal body
The disruption of a cell and separation of its organelles by centrifugation.
cell fractionation
A protective layer external to the plasma membrane in plant cells, bacteria, fungi, and some protists. In plant cells, the wall is formed of cellulose fibers embedded in a polysaccharide-protein...
cell wall

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