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Side ASide B
A group of individuals of the same species living within a specified area is a
the number of individuals per unit of area or volume in the habitat is
the maximum rate of increase in numbers by a population is
the factors determining population size
Births, deaths, immigration, and emigration
- ZPG or ‘zero population growth.’
The ‘intrinsic rate of increase (r) is
the difference between the birth rate and death rate
When limiting factors are absent, population growth is
Ideally, populations are limited in size by the habitat
‘carrying capacity (K).’
Carrying capacity (K) is determined by
If population changes are not related to its size, the causative factors are called
- parasitism, disease, predation, competition
A type III survivorship curve (high juvenile mortality; a reverse J-shape) is shown by...
- insects, fish, amphibians, and reptiles, all creatures with large litter size.
- increasing K, new habitats, removing limiting factors, or better medicines.
- grasslands or savannah habitats.
- agriculture and the construction of human civilizations.
- a disease, the bubonic plague.
- the decrease the birth rate.
- a pyramid with a very broad base.
Developing (less industrialized) countries tend to be _______ from ZPG.
- plants, herbivores like cows, wolf
- producers, decomposers
- bacteria, fungi
- “to feed.”
- the available energy from outside sources, not other trophic levels.
- the sun.
- heat from metabolism.
- particulate or bulk dead organic material
- numerous,wastes, all
- ‘biological magnification.’
‘Net primary productivity’ =
energy stored in plant tissue – energy used in cell respiration.
- ‘pyramid of energy.’
- evaporation from the oceans.
Carbon is stored in
living biomass, fossil fuels, rocks, or shells of animals.
- dissolved carbonates or bicarbonates, carbon dioxide, or plant cellulose.
- respiration, volcanoes, burning coal, or diffusion from the ocean.
- ‘greenhouse gas.’
- the burning of fossil fuels.
- ammonia and nitrates.
- Nitrogen and Phosphorus
- primary producers.