Biology 1 Honors Final Exam Review

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Biology Final Exam Review For Ms. Le's Class. The Entire Review Packet That She Gave Us. 

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During his voyage on the Beagle, Charles Darwin made many observations 
-in England -in N America -in S America -in Asia 
-in S America 
In the 1800s, Charles Lyell emphasized that 
-the human population will outgrow the available food supply -all populations evolve through natural selection -Earth is very young -gradual geological events in the past could explain the physical features of today's Earth. 
-gradual geological events in the past could explain the physical features of today's Earth. 
WHen a farmer breeds only his or her best livestock, the process involved is 
-natural selection -artificial selection -artificial variation -survival of the fittest 
-artificial selection 
Charles Darwin's observation that finches of different species on the Galapagos Islands have many similar physical characteristics supports the hypothesis that these finch species 
-have grown larger since Darwin's visit -acquired traits through use and disuse-all eat the same type of food. -originated from a common ancestor 
-originated from a common ancestor 
Which of the following statements best describes the findings of Rosemary and Peter Grant's study of the Galapagos finches? 
-Finches with large beaks always outcompete finches with small beaks -Small finches reproduce more successfully than large finches -Food availability affected beak size -Beak size among finches did not affect reproductive success
-Food availability affected beak size 
The separation of populations by barriers such as rivers, mountains, or bodies of water is called 
-Timing isolation -Geographic isolation -Behavioral isolation -Genetic equilibrium 
-Geographic isolation 
A factor that keeps species separate is 
-Reproduction at different times -Incompatible reproductive structures -Different mating behaviors -All of the above 
-All of the above 
The length of time required for half of the radioactive isotope in a sample to decay is its 
-Half-life-Relative date -Radioactive date -Geologic time scale 
In the past, mass extinctions encouraged the rapid evolution of surviving species 
-By changing developmental genes-By providing new opportunities for them -Because they killed all organisms that had evolved together-Because they spared all organisms that had evolved convergently 
-By providing new opportunities for them 
One way master control genes, or homeotic genes, could have affected evolution is 
-By causing mutations in other genes-Through small changes in timing during embryonic development -Through the evolution of species -By leading to convergent evolution 
-Through small changes in timing during embryonic development 
Which of these labels for fossils in a museum display contains an error? 
-Dinosaur (MIddle Mesozoic) -Early Mammal (Middle Paleozoic) -Early Human (Late Cenozoic) -Early Marine Invertebrate (Early Paleozoic) 
-Early Mammal (Middle Paleozoic) 
An analysis of derived characters is used to generate a 
-fossil record -phylogenetic tree based on DNA structure -cladogram -traditional classification system 
What does a cladistic analysis show about organisms? 
-the relative importance of each derived character -The order in which derived characters evolved -the general fitness of the organisms analyzed -All traits of each organism analyzed 
-The order in which derived characters evolved 
Organisms in the domains Bacteria and Archaea were previously grouped in a kingdom called 
-Anamalia -Fungi-Monera -Eukarya 
Which of the following is not found in bacteria? 
-cell wall -membrane-bound nucleus -ribosome -plasma membrane 
-membrane-bound nucleus 
Unlike Bacteria, Archaea 
-have cell walls -are prokaryotes -have two plasma membranes-are thought to be closely related to eukaryotes 
-are thought to be closely related to eukaryotes 
A virus's DNA or RNA is surrounded by a(n) 
-protein coat -nuclear membrane -tail -endospore 
-protein coat 
Many cases of food poisoning are caused by bacterial 
-toxins-decomposition -resistance to antibiotics -sterilization 
Bacteria are sometimes called nature's recyclers because they 
-undergo conjugation -break down nutrients in dead organisms -can switch between respiration and fermentation -carry out photosynthesis 
-break down nutrients in dead organisms 
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of all plants 
-are eukaryotic -have cell walls -produce seeds -are multicellular 
-produce seeds 
Seed-bearing plants differ from all other plants in that 
-they have vascular tissue -they do not have a gametophyte generation -their gametes do not require water for fertilization to occur -all of the above 
-their gametes do not require water for fertilization to occur 
Scientists hypothesize that the specialized reproductive structure that evolved most recently is the 
-seed-pollen grain -ovary -gametophyte 
An example of a monocot is a 
-moss -lily -fern -pine tree 
Which term below is least closely related to the others? 
Which of the following includes a plant embryo, a food supply, and a protective covering? 
-pollen grain -spore-seed-gametophyte 
In bryophytes, haploid reproductive cells are produced by the 
-haploid stage -diploid stage -gametophyte and sporophyte -all of the above 
-all of the above 
In liverworts, the sporophyte is produced by a structure shaped like a(n) 
-leaf -heart -liver-umbrella 
Which group of plants produces seeds that are "naked"? 
-bryophytes -pteridophytes -gymnosperms -angiosperms 
The presence of flowers and outer protective coatings of the seeds distinguishes 
-club mosses from mosses -angiosperms from gymnosperms -two classes of angiosperms -seed plants from seedless plans 
-angiosperms from gymnosperms 
In angiosperms, reproduction takes place in 
-leaves-flowers -cones-pollen 
The non-reproductive parts of a flower are the 
-carpel and stamens -filaments and anthers -stigma and style -sepals and petals 
-sepals and petals 
THe tough outer layer of a seed is called the 
-seed coat -fruit -nut -embryo wall 
-seed coat 
A ripened ovary that contains seeds is called a(an) 
Which type of plant lives the longest? 
-annual -biennial -perennial -none of the above 
What fruit-eating animal likely would ensure the widest dispersal of a plant's seeds? 
-rat -raccoon -bird -squirrel 
THe early growth stage of a plant embryo is called 
-fertilization -dormancy -germination -pollination 
Tree rings result from yearly activity in the 
-heartwood -vascular cambium -bark -cork cambium 
-vascular cambium 
In an angiosperm, pollen grains are produced in the 
-stigma -filament-carpel -anther 
During germination of many monocots, the developing shoot is 
-preceded by a protective sheath -protected by a hooked shoot tip -replaced by the cotyledon -covered by the first pair of leaves 
-preceded by a protective sheath 
In angiosperms, xylem consists of tracheids and 
-sieve-tube members -companion cells -vessel elements -parenchyma cells 
-vessel elements 
There is a one-way movement of water and minterals into the vascular cylinder of a root because 
-water molecules are in high concentration in the root's outer layer. -nutrients are in low concentration in the roots outer layer. -the roof pressure is low-the endodermis has waxy cell walls 
-the endodermis has waxy cell walls 
When a plant moves its sugars from its leaves to its roots, the sink is the 
-leaves-roots -stems -same as the source 
When a carnivorous plant captures and digests insects, the most important result is that it gains additional 
-oxygen -nitrogen -potassium -phosphorus 
The stomata of leaves are usually open in 
-light if a plant has enough water -light if a plant has too little water -darkness if a plant has enough water-darkness if a plant has too little water 
-light if a plant has enough water 
Which of the following is the source of most of a plant's mass? 
-water-air -soil -none of the above 
-none of the above 

(the actual answer was the stem, I believe) 
Which of the following is NOT one of the three mineral nutrients most commonly deficient in farm and garden soils? 
-calcium -phosphorus -nitrogen -potassium 
Both roundworms and rotifers have 
-radial symmetry -complete digestive tract -segmented body -gastrovascular cavities 
-complete digestive tract 
Organisms that spend their entire adult lives attached to one spot are said to be 
-sessile -heterotrophic -flagellated -symmetric 
A key characteristic of multi-cellular organisms is 
-highly specialized cells -interdependent layers -multiple cell layers -all of the above 
-all of the above 
A person who has trichinosis likely contracted it from 
-walking barefoot on soil infested with Trichinella worms -eating undercooked meat containing Trichinella cysts -mosquitoes -coming in contact with Trichinella-infested snails 
-eating undercooked meat containing Trichinella cysts
The fastest, most agile mollusks are the 
-gastropods-cephalopods -bivalves-rotifers 
Some type of body symmetry is found in all invertebrates EXCEPT 
-cnidarians -echinoderms -sponges -flatworms 
A "rotating wheel" of cilia surrounds the mouth of a 
-planarian -starfish -sea anemone -rotifer 
Typical primitive arthropods such as trilobites had bodies that were composed of 
-many segments -three segments -one segment -no segments 
many segments 
The body of an insect is divided into a 
-head and thorax -head and cephalothorax -head, thorax, and abdomen-cephalothorax and abdomen 
-head thorax and abdomen
Which insect is NOT classified in the same order as the others? 
-ants -crickets -bees -wasps 
How many pairs of legs are there on most body segments of a centipede 
-one -two -five -six 
Which of the following is NOT a likely reason for the evolutionary success of insects? 
-the ability to fly has enabled insects to colonize new habitats -Insects as a group are not very diverse because there are relatively few species-Insects use many sense organs to respond to stimuli -Many insects have a life cycle in which the young are very different from adults. 
-Insects as a group are not very diverse because there are relatively few species
Which arthropod does NOT belong with the others? 
-isopod -barnacle -shrimp -copepod 
Which modern-day arthropods are most similar to fossil trilobites 
-dragonflies-fiddler crabs -horseshoe crabs -praying mantises 
-horseshoe crabs 
Which of the following structures are missing from many salamanders that live on land? 
-lungs-kidneys -legs -eyes
Blood flows through the body of a fish in a 
-single-circuit open circulatory system -single-circuit closed circulatory system -double-circuit open circulatory system -double-circuit closed circulatory system
-single-circuit closed circulatory system 
Modern jawless fishes include 
-sharks -skates -lampreys -lungfishes 
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of most amphibians? 
-they live on land as adults -they breathe with lungs as adults -they have moist skin that contains mucus-secreting glands-they have scales and claws 
-they have scales and claws 
A four chambered heart is found in
-lizards -snakes-turtles-alligators 
The structure of a bird's heart ensures that 
-oxygen-rich blood never mixes with oxygen-poor blood -oxygen-rich blood is always pumped to the lungs-oxygen-poor blood is always pumped to the body -oxygen-poor blood never enters the heart 
-oxygen-rich blood never mixes with oxygen-poor blood 
Which of the following vertebrates has a heart with four chambers? 
-salamander -lizard-goldfish -cow 
Oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood undergo the least mixing in the heart of a 
-crocodile -turtle -snake-lizard 
Which of the following is NOT a function of skin 
-helps regulate body temperature -protects internal organs -contracts and relaxes muscles-helps prevent infection 
-contracts and relaxes muscles
Which of the following is NOT part of the integumentary system? 
-skin -cartilage -nails-hair 
The main function of the skill is to 
-produce blood cells -protect the heart and lungs-house and protect the brain -act like a lever for muscle attachment 
-house and protect the brain 
Where is the cardiac muscle tissue located in the body? 
-heart -ribs -skull-bones
Which of the following produce keratin 
-epidermal cells -sweat glands-adipose tissue cells -hair follicles 
-hair follicles 
What are the two layers of the skin? 
-keratin and dermis -epidermis and melanin -epidermis and dermis -melanin and keratin 
-epidermis and dermis 
Which of the following is a protein that makes up hair and nails? 
-sweat-melanin -collagen -keratin 
What is the skeleton of a newborn baby mainly composed of? 
-bone-cartilage -bone marrow -collagen 
Where is the protein called actin located in the body? 
-marrow -thin filaments -myosin filaments -hair 
-thin filaments 
When an action potential reaches the end of a neuron at a chemical synapse, it triggers the release of 
-neurotransmitters -sodium ions -dendrites-receptors 
The division of the nervous system that helps the body react to pain is the 
-somatic nervous system -sensory division -autonomic nervous system -sympathetic division 
-somatic nervous system 
What types of drugs generally slow down the activity of the central nervous system? 
-stimulants -depressants -opiates -cocaine
Which divisions of the peripheral nervous system transmits impulses from sense organs to the central nervous system? 
-sensory -motor -sensory and motor -spinal cord 
-sensory division 
Which of the five senses uses two types of photoreceptors called rods and cones? 
-vision -hearing-smell -taste 
Painful withdrawal symptoms can occur when a drug user attempts to stop using 
-opiates -cocaine-inhalants -marijuana 
Alcohol does each of the following EXCEPT 
-slow CNS activity -stimulate heart rate -impair judgement -disrupt coordination 
-stimulate heart rate 
Where does the process of chemical digestion begin? 
-stomach -esophagus -small intestine -mouth 
A calorie is the amount of energy needed to 
-raise the temperature of the body by 1 degree celsius -raise the temperature of 1 g of fat by 1 degree celsius -raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1 degree celsius -none of the above 
-raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1 degree celsius 
What does mechanical digestion in the stomach involve? 
-absorption of nutrients by villi -pepsin and bile -muscle contractions -bile and pancreatic fluid 
-muscle contractions 
What is the correct direction of blood flow? 
-right atrium--> right ventricle --> pulmonary artery -right atrium -->left atrium --> pulmonary artery -left ventricle --> pulmonary artery --> aorta -left ventricle--> left atrium --> aorta 
-right atrium--> right ventricle --> pulmonary artery 
Which of the following is NOT a function of blood? 
-regulate filtration -distribute hormones-transport nutrients-fight infections 
-regulate filtration 
The function of valves in the heart is to 
-stimulate the heartbeat -accelerate the flow of blood -prevent the backward flow of blood -serve as a cushion to prevent friction 
-prevent the backward flow of blood 
When infection occurs, the number of 
-RBC increases -RBC decreases -WBC increases-WBC decreases 
WBC increases 
Which of the following is not contained in tobacco? 
-carbon monoxide -caffeine -nicotine -ammonia 
The germ theory of disease states that infectious diseases are caused by 
-toxins -pathogens -heredity -materials in the environment 
The body's nonspecific defenses against invading pathogens include 
-antibiotics -mucus, sweat, and tears -antibodies -T cells 
-mucus, sweat, and tears 
The inflammatory response can cause 
-permanent immunity -pain, swelling, and redness -antibodies to bind to antigens -T cells to attack infected cells 
-pain, swelling, and redness 
Humoral immunity originates from
-T cells -NK cells -B cells -macrophages
-B cells 
An infectious disease is one that is caused by 
-heredity -materials in the environment -pathogens -an organ transplant 
Which of the following is NOT a step in identifying the pathogen that causes a specific disease? 
-the pathogen should be found in the body of a healthy organism -the pathogen should be isolated and grown in a pure culture -the purified pathogens should cause the same disease in a new host -the pathogen should be isolated from the second host
-the pathogen should be found in the body of a healthy organism 
A person who has received a vaccine against polio 
-is able to produce antibodies against polio -is more susceptible to the polio virus than someone who has not had the vaccine -has polio antibodies in the bloodstream -has anti polio killer T cells in the bloodstream 
-is able to produce antibodies against polio 
Which of the following presents a risk of spreading HIV? 
-abstaining from sex -sharing a needle -kissing someone on the cheek -using a sterile needle to receive a medical injection
-sharing a needle 
Dialysis processes blood outside the body and 
-carries urine to the urinary bladder -pumps blood throughout the body -returns filtered blood to the body -forces water into cells and tissues by osmosis 
-returns filtered blood to the body 
Which gland fails to produce enough of its hormone in the disease diabetes mellitus? 
-adrenal -hypothalamus -pancreas -parathyroid 
Which of the following is NOT part of a nephron 
-urethra -tubule -glomerulus -Bowman's capsule 
What percentage of the filtrate's water that enters the Bowman's capsule is reabsorbed into the blood? 
-99-80-50-less than 25
In the kidneys, both useful substances and wastes are removed from the blood by
-reabsorption -excretion -dialysis -filtration 
When the hypothalamus detects a decreased solute concentration in the blood, it directs the kidneys (through the pituitary) to 
-excrete less urine -return more water to the blood by filtration -return more water to the blood by reabsorption -return less water to the blood by reabsorption 
-return more water to the blood by reabsorption 
During the menstrual cycle, high levels of LH cause the 
-corpus luteum to disintegrate -follicle to release a mature egg -uterine lining to detach from the uterus -the lining of the uterus to thicken 
-follicle to release a mature egg 
Which hormones stimulate sperm production 
-FSH and testosterone -estrogens -androgens -testosterone and progesterone 
-FSH and testosterone 
What is the result of gastrulation? 
-a blastocyst -a zygote -the amnion -three cell layers 
-3 cell layers 
Which of the following is NOT a function of the female reproductive system? 
-to produce eggs -prepare the body to carry an embryo -deliver sperm -release eggs into the oviducts 
-deliver sperm
Which organ system is responsible for making and delivering sperm? 
-female reproductive system -endocrine system -nervous system -male reproductive system 
-male reproductive system 
Which of the following are required for fertilization to occur inside the female body? 
-sperm must swim into an oviduct -an oocyte must be present in an oviduct -the nucleus of a sperm must fuse with an oocyte nucleus -all of the above 
-all of the above 
the placenta connects the 
-fetus to mother's uterus -ectoderm to endoderm -umbilical cord to mother's vagina -uterus to cervix 
fetus to mother's uterus 
Which cell structure contains the cell's genetic material? 
-organelle -nucleus -cell envelope -cytoplasm 
Which of the following is the correct sequence of events in cellular respiration? 
-glycolysis, fermentation, Krebs cycle -Krebs cycle, electron transport, glycolysis -glycolysis, krebs cycle, electron transport -Krebs cycle, glycolysis, electron transport 
-glycolysis, krebs cycle, electron transport 
Cellular respiration is an aerobic process because it requires
-light -exercise-oxygen -glucose 
Which of the following is a phase of mitosis? 
-cytokinesis -interphase-prophase-s phase
Variation in human skin color is a result of 
-intermediate inheritance -codominance-polygenic inheritence -multiple alleles
polygenic inhereitance 
RNA contains the sugar 
-ribose -deoxyribose-glucose-lactose 
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