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Side ASide B
During his voyage on the Beagle, Charles Darwin made many observations -in England -in N America -in S America -in Asia
-in S America
In the 1800s, Charles Lyell emphasized that -the human population will outgrow the available food supply -all populations evolve through natural selection -Earth is very...
-gradual geological events in the past could explain the physical features of today's Earth.
WHen a farmer breeds only his or her best livestock, the process involved is -natural selection -artificial selection -artificial variation -survival of the fittest
Charles Darwin's observation that finches of different species on the Galapagos Islands have many similar physical characteristics supports the hypothesis that these finch species -have...
-originated from a common ancestor
Which of the following statements best describes the findings of Rosemary and Peter Grant's study of the Galapagos finches? -Finches with large beaks always outcompete finches...
-Food availability affected beak size
The separation of populations by barriers such as rivers, mountains, or bodies of water is called -Timing isolation -Geographic isolation -Behavioral isolation -Genetic...
A factor that keeps species separate is -Reproduction at different times -Incompatible reproductive structures -Different mating behaviors -All of the...
-All of the above
The length of time required for half of the radioactive isotope in a sample to decay is its -Half-life-Relative date -Radioactive date -Geologic time scale
In the past, mass extinctions encouraged the rapid evolution of surviving species -By changing developmental genes-By providing new opportunities for them -Because they killed...
-By providing new opportunities for them
One way master control genes, or homeotic genes, could have affected evolution is -By causing mutations in other genes-Through small changes in timing during embryonic development -Through...
-Through small changes in timing during embryonic development
Which of these labels for fossils in a museum display contains an error? -Dinosaur (MIddle Mesozoic) -Early Mammal (Middle Paleozoic) -Early Human (Late Cenozoic) -Early...
-Early Mammal (Middle Paleozoic)
An analysis of derived characters is used to generate a -fossil record -phylogenetic tree based on DNA structure -cladogram -traditional classification system
What does a cladistic analysis show about organisms? -the relative importance of each derived character -The order in which derived characters evolved -the general fitness...
-The order in which derived characters evolved
Organisms in the domains Bacteria and Archaea were previously grouped in a kingdom called -Anamalia -Fungi-Monera -Eukarya
Which of the following is not found in bacteria? -cell wall -membrane-bound nucleus -ribosome -plasma membrane
Unlike Bacteria, Archaea -have cell walls -are prokaryotes -have two plasma membranes-are thought to be closely related to eukaryotes
-are thought to be closely related to eukaryotes
A virus's DNA or RNA is surrounded by a(n) -protein coat -nuclear membrane -tail -endospore
Many cases of food poisoning are caused by bacterial -toxins-decomposition -resistance to antibiotics -sterilization
Bacteria are sometimes called nature's recyclers because they -undergo conjugation -break down nutrients in dead organisms -can switch between respiration and fermentation -carry...
-break down nutrients in dead organisms
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of all plants -are eukaryotic -have cell walls -produce seeds -are multicellular
Seed-bearing plants differ from all other plants in that -they have vascular tissue -they do not have a gametophyte generation -their gametes do not require water for...
-their gametes do not require water for fertilization to occur
Scientists hypothesize that the specialized reproductive structure that evolved most recently is the -seed-pollen grain -ovary -gametophyte
An example of a monocot is a -moss -lily -fern -pine tree
Which term below is least closely related to the others? -leaf-seed-ovary-pollen
Which of the following includes a plant embryo, a food supply, and a protective covering? -pollen grain -spore-seed-gametophyte
In bryophytes, haploid reproductive cells are produced by the -haploid stage -diploid stage -gametophyte and sporophyte -all of the above
-all of the above
In liverworts, the sporophyte is produced by a structure shaped like a(n) -leaf -heart -liver-umbrella
Which group of plants produces seeds that are "naked"? -bryophytes -pteridophytes -gymnosperms -angiosperms
The presence of flowers and outer protective coatings of the seeds distinguishes -club mosses from mosses -angiosperms from gymnosperms -two classes of angiosperms -seed...
-angiosperms from gymnosperms
In angiosperms, reproduction takes place in -leaves-flowers -cones-pollen
The non-reproductive parts of a flower are the -carpel and stamens -filaments and anthers -stigma and style -sepals and petals
-sepals and petals
THe tough outer layer of a seed is called the -seed coat -fruit -nut -embryo wall
A ripened ovary that contains seeds is called a(an) -embryo-seed-fruit-vegetable
Which type of plant lives the longest? -annual -biennial -perennial -none of the above
What fruit-eating animal likely would ensure the widest dispersal of a plant's seeds? -rat -raccoon -bird -squirrel
THe early growth stage of a plant embryo is called -fertilization -dormancy -germination -pollination
Tree rings result from yearly activity in the -heartwood -vascular cambium -bark -cork cambium
In an angiosperm, pollen grains are produced in the -stigma -filament-carpel -anther
During germination of many monocots, the developing shoot is -preceded by a protective sheath -protected by a hooked shoot tip -replaced by the cotyledon -covered...
-preceded by a protective sheath
In angiosperms, xylem consists of tracheids and -sieve-tube members -companion cells -vessel elements -parenchyma cells
There is a one-way movement of water and minterals into the vascular cylinder of a root because -water molecules are in high concentration in the root's outer layer. -nutrients...
-the endodermis has waxy cell walls
When a plant moves its sugars from its leaves to its roots, the sink is the -leaves-roots -stems -same as the source
When a carnivorous plant captures and digests insects, the most important result is that it gains additional -oxygen -nitrogen -potassium -phosphorus
The stomata of leaves are usually open in -light if a plant has enough water -light if a plant has too little water -darkness if a plant has enough water-darkness if...
-light if a plant has enough water
Which of the following is the source of most of a plant's mass? -water-air -soil -none of the above
-none of the above (the actual answer was the stem, I believe)
Which of the following is NOT one of the three mineral nutrients most commonly deficient in farm and garden soils? -calcium -phosphorus -nitrogen -potassium
Both roundworms and rotifers have -radial symmetry -complete digestive tract -segmented body -gastrovascular cavities
-complete digestive tract
Organisms that spend their entire adult lives attached to one spot are said to be -sessile -heterotrophic -flagellated -symmetric
A key characteristic of multi-cellular organisms is -highly specialized cells -interdependent layers -multiple cell layers -all of the above
-all of the above
A person who has trichinosis likely contracted it from -walking barefoot on soil infested with Trichinella worms -eating undercooked meat containing Trichinella cysts -mosquitoes -coming...
-eating undercooked meat containing Trichinella cysts
The fastest, most agile mollusks are the -gastropods-cephalopods -bivalves-rotifers
Some type of body symmetry is found in all invertebrates EXCEPT -cnidarians -echinoderms -sponges -flatworms
A "rotating wheel" of cilia surrounds the mouth of a -planarian -starfish -sea anemone -rotifer
Typical primitive arthropods such as trilobites had bodies that were composed of -many segments -three segments -one segment -no segments
The body of an insect is divided into a -head and thorax -head and cephalothorax -head, thorax, and abdomen-cephalothorax and abdomen
-head thorax and abdomen
Which insect is NOT classified in the same order as the others? -ants -crickets -bees -wasps
How many pairs of legs are there on most body segments of a centipede -one -two -five -six
Which of the following is NOT a likely reason for the evolutionary success of insects? -the ability to fly has enabled insects to colonize new habitats -Insects as a group...
-Insects as a group are not very diverse because there are relatively few species
Which arthropod does NOT belong with the others? -isopod -barnacle -shrimp -copepod
Which modern-day arthropods are most similar to fossil trilobites -dragonflies-fiddler crabs -horseshoe crabs -praying mantises
Which of the following structures are missing from many salamanders that live on land? -lungs-kidneys -legs -eyes
Blood flows through the body of a fish in a -single-circuit open circulatory system -single-circuit closed circulatory system -double-circuit open circulatory system -double-circuit...
-single-circuit closed circulatory system
Modern jawless fishes include -sharks -skates -lampreys -lungfishes
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of most amphibians? -they live on land as adults -they breathe with lungs as adults -they have moist skin that contains...
-they have scales and claws
A four chambered heart is found in-lizards -snakes-turtles-alligators
The structure of a bird's heart ensures that -oxygen-rich blood never mixes with oxygen-poor blood -oxygen-rich blood is always pumped to the lungs-oxygen-poor blood is always...
-oxygen-rich blood never mixes with oxygen-poor blood
Which of the following vertebrates has a heart with four chambers? -salamander -lizard-goldfish -cow
Oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood undergo the least mixing in the heart of a -crocodile -turtle -snake-lizard
Which of the following is NOT a function of skin -helps regulate body temperature -protects internal organs -contracts and relaxes muscles-helps prevent infection
-contracts and relaxes muscles
Which of the following is NOT part of the integumentary system? -skin -cartilage -nails-hair
The main function of the skill is to -produce blood cells -protect the heart and lungs-house and protect the brain -act like a lever for muscle attachment
-house and protect the brain
Where is the cardiac muscle tissue located in the body? -heart -ribs -skull-bones
Which of the following produce keratin -epidermal cells -sweat glands-adipose tissue cells -hair follicles
What are the two layers of the skin? -keratin and dermis -epidermis and melanin -epidermis and dermis -melanin and keratin
-epidermis and dermis
Which of the following is a protein that makes up hair and nails? -sweat-melanin -collagen -keratin
What is the skeleton of a newborn baby mainly composed of? -bone-cartilage -bone marrow -collagen
Where is the protein called actin located in the body? -marrow -thin filaments -myosin filaments -hair
When an action potential reaches the end of a neuron at a chemical synapse, it triggers the release of -neurotransmitters -sodium ions -dendrites-receptors
The division of the nervous system that helps the body react to pain is the -somatic nervous system -sensory division -autonomic nervous system -sympathetic division
-somatic nervous system
What types of drugs generally slow down the activity of the central nervous system? -stimulants -depressants -opiates -cocaine
Which divisions of the peripheral nervous system transmits impulses from sense organs to the central nervous system? -sensory -motor -sensory and motor -spinal cord
Which of the five senses uses two types of photoreceptors called rods and cones? -vision -hearing-smell -taste
Painful withdrawal symptoms can occur when a drug user attempts to stop using -opiates -cocaine-inhalants -marijuana
Alcohol does each of the following EXCEPT -slow CNS activity -stimulate heart rate -impair judgement -disrupt coordination
-stimulate heart rate
Where does the process of chemical digestion begin? -stomach -esophagus -small intestine -mouth
A calorie is the amount of energy needed to -raise the temperature of the body by 1 degree celsius -raise the temperature of 1 g of fat by 1 degree celsius -raise the...
-raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1 degree celsius
What does mechanical digestion in the stomach involve? -absorption of nutrients by villi -pepsin and bile -muscle contractions -bile and pancreatic fluid
What is the correct direction of blood flow? -right atrium--> right ventricle --> pulmonary artery -right atrium -->left atrium --> pulmonary artery -left...
-right atrium--> right ventricle --> pulmonary artery
Which of the following is NOT a function of blood? -regulate filtration -distribute hormones-transport nutrients-fight infections
The function of valves in the heart is to -stimulate the heartbeat -accelerate the flow of blood -prevent the backward flow of blood -serve as a cushion to prevent...
-prevent the backward flow of blood
When infection occurs, the number of -RBC increases -RBC decreases -WBC increases-WBC decreases
Which of the following is not contained in tobacco? -carbon monoxide -caffeine -nicotine -ammonia
The germ theory of disease states that infectious diseases are caused by -toxins -pathogens -heredity -materials in the environment
The body's nonspecific defenses against invading pathogens include -antibiotics -mucus, sweat, and tears -antibodies -T cells
-mucus, sweat, and tears
The inflammatory response can cause -permanent immunity -pain, swelling, and redness -antibodies to bind to antigens -T cells to attack infected cells
-pain, swelling, and redness
Humoral immunity originates from-T cells -NK cells -B cells -macrophages
An infectious disease is one that is caused by -heredity -materials in the environment -pathogens -an organ transplant
Which of the following is NOT a step in identifying the pathogen that causes a specific disease? -the pathogen should be found in the body of a healthy organism -the pathogen...
-the pathogen should be found in the body of a healthy organism
A person who has received a vaccine against polio -is able to produce antibodies against polio -is more susceptible to the polio virus than someone who has not had...
-is able to produce antibodies against polio
Which of the following presents a risk of spreading HIV? -abstaining from sex -sharing a needle -kissing someone on the cheek -using a sterile needle to receive...
-sharing a needle
Dialysis processes blood outside the body and -carries urine to the urinary bladder -pumps blood throughout the body -returns filtered blood to the body -forces...
-returns filtered blood to the body
Which gland fails to produce enough of its hormone in the disease diabetes mellitus? -adrenal -hypothalamus -pancreas -parathyroid
Which of the following is NOT part of a nephron -urethra -tubule -glomerulus -Bowman's capsule
What percentage of the filtrate's water that enters the Bowman's capsule is reabsorbed into the blood? -99-80-50-less than 25
In the kidneys, both useful substances and wastes are removed from the blood by-reabsorption -excretion -dialysis -filtration
When the hypothalamus detects a decreased solute concentration in the blood, it directs the kidneys (through the pituitary) to -excrete less urine -return more water to the...
-return more water to the blood by reabsorption
During the menstrual cycle, high levels of LH cause the -corpus luteum to disintegrate -follicle to release a mature egg -uterine lining to detach from the uterus -the...
-follicle to release a mature egg
Which hormones stimulate sperm production -FSH and testosterone -estrogens -androgens -testosterone and progesterone
-FSH and testosterone
What is the result of gastrulation? -a blastocyst -a zygote -the amnion -three cell layers
-3 cell layers
Which of the following is NOT a function of the female reproductive system? -to produce eggs -prepare the body to carry an embryo -deliver sperm -release eggs into...
Which organ system is responsible for making and delivering sperm? -female reproductive system -endocrine system -nervous system -male reproductive system
-male reproductive system
Which of the following are required for fertilization to occur inside the female body? -sperm must swim into an oviduct -an oocyte must be present in an oviduct -the...
-all of the above
the placenta connects the -fetus to mother's uterus -ectoderm to endoderm -umbilical cord to mother's vagina -uterus to cervix
fetus to mother's uterus
Which cell structure contains the cell's genetic material? -organelle -nucleus -cell envelope -cytoplasm
Which of the following is the correct sequence of events in cellular respiration? -glycolysis, fermentation, Krebs cycle -Krebs cycle, electron transport, glycolysis -glycolysis,...
-glycolysis, krebs cycle, electron transport
Cellular respiration is an aerobic process because it requires-light -exercise-oxygen -glucose
Which of the following is a phase of mitosis? -cytokinesis -interphase-prophase-s phase
Variation in human skin color is a result of -intermediate inheritance -codominance-polygenic inheritence -multiple alleles
RNA contains the sugar -ribose -deoxyribose-glucose-lactose