Biology 1 - Fall 2011 = Chap 9+10

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Flashcards for MGCCC 2011 Fall Biology 1 class - chapters 9+10


 
  
Created Nov 1, 2011
by
24psmith

 

 
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1
One of the characteristics of living things is their ability to ... ?
 
Reproduce their kind
2
Heredity is the transfer of biological information from ... ?
 
Parent to offspring
3
Genetics is the branch of biology concerned with the structure, transmission, and ... ?
 
Expression of hereditary information
4
Genes are the ... ? 
 
Units of heredity 
5
Chromosomes (colored bodies) are the nuclear packages in which ... ?
 
Genetic information is stored
6
Chromosomes are composed of a tangle of darkly staining fibers called ... ?
 
Chromotins
7
Chromotin is composed of ... ?
 
60% protein, 35% DNA, and 5% RNA
8
THe length of DNA in a single cell nucleus is estimated to be ... ?
 
About 1 yard
9
Each chromosome contains .... ?
 
Thousands of genes
10
Each gene is a unit of information which determines a specifically hereditary trait and occupies...
 
Specific location on a chromosome
11
Some genes are capable of transmitting their chromosomal ... ?
 
DNA information to RNA molecules
12
RNA molecules contain the code sequence of amino acids (the building blocks of proteins) of...
 
Within the organism
13
Humans have ... ?
 
About 75,000 genes
14
Everyy individual in a given species possesses a specific number of chromosomes. These chromosomes...
 
Virtually every cell of the body.
15
Human body cells have 46 chromosomes. For this reason 46 is termed the ... number?
 
Somatic
16
The somatic number is also identified as the ... number?
 
Diploid number (2n)
17
The number of chromosomes present in the sex cells gametes) is 23. This is the ... number ?
 
Haploid number (1n)
18
The number of chromosomes between animal species varies from 2 to several hundred (The crayfish...
 
Also have 46 chromosomes
19
Once cells reach a certain size, they must stop growing or divide. However, some cells do not...
 
Nerve cells, cardiac muscle cells, and mature red blood cells (RBCs)
20
The cell cycle includes all the activities of the cell during which it is ... ?
 
Actively growing and dividing
21
The completing of the cell cycle is termed .... ?
 
Generation time
22
The time to duplicate an average cell is ... ?
 
About 24 hours
23
The cell cycle is divided into ... ?
 
Four phases
24
In the M (mitosis) phase, active cell division occurs and lasts about .... ?
 
1-2 hours
25
In the G1 (gap 1) phase, organelles begin to double in number and this phases lasts about......
 
8-10 hours
26
In the S (synthesis) phase, the DNA replicates and this phase lasts about ... ?
 
6-8 hours
27
In the G2 (gap 2) phase, synthesis of proteins occurs  and this phases lasts about ......
 
4-6 hours
28
Mitosis occupies approximately ... ?
 
5% of the total cell cycle
29
Cell duplication involves ... ?
 
2 main processes 
30
Mitosis (greek for threads) is a division of the nucleus that produces an equal sharing of...
 
2 resulting cells
31
Cytokinesis is the division of the cytoplasm that is ... ?
 
Coincident with mitosis
32
The 5 phases of mitosis are ... ?
 
Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase.
33
What's the first phase of mitosis?
 
Interphase
34
What's the second phase of mitosis?
 
Prophase
35
What's the thirdphase of mitosis?
 
Metaphase
36
What's the fourth phase of mitosis?
 
Anaphase
37
What's the five phase of mitosis?
 
Telophase
38
Interphase is the normal working phase of the clel. Structures and substances such as organelles...
 
Synthesized and accumulated
39
Does any cell division take place during Interphase?
 
NO
40
Interphase lasts about 95% of the cell cycle and the chromatin in the nucleus is "unorganized"....
 
Visible
41
In prophase, the nuclear membrane and .... disappear?
 
Nucleolus
42
In Prophase, the chromatin begins to "organize" by coiling and folding and becoming...
 
Chromosomes become visible
43
During organization in Prophase, the chromosomes, which duplicated during the S-phase of the...
 
Sister chromatids
44
Prophase: The constructed part of the chromosome that joins the sister chromatids is...
 
A centromere
45
Prophase: Each sister chromatid has a long or short arm which extends from the centromere....
 
"p" and the long arm by "q".
46
In animal cells, the centrosome, and the two centrioles contained within it, duplicate and...
 
The centrosome is.
47
Prophase: As each pair of centrioles migrate to their respective poles, they pull one set of...
 
Termed the kinetochore
48
Microscopically, the centrioles and their associated microtubules somewhat resemble starbursts...
 
Called asters (stars) 
49
During aster formation the chromosomes begin to organize along the ... ?
 
Center (equator) of the cell
50
The appearance of the 2 asters, with their microtubules radiating to the cell's equator, is...
 
The mitotic spindle
51
Metaphase: The chromosomes line up along the equator of the cell with the centromeres...
 
The equators midline
52
Metaphase: The mitotic spindle is complete. SPindle fibers can be seen to run from the...
 
Centromere on the equator
53
Metaphase: The chromosomes are very distinct and are ... ?
 
Used for genetic studied at this stage
54
Anaphase: Sister chromatids separate at their centromeres. At this point they become...
 
Independent chromosomes.
55
Anaphase: The separated chromosomes are pulled to opposite poles by their ... ?
 
Attached spindle fibers
56
Anaphase: Anaphase ends when all the chromosomes have ... ?
 
Reached the poles
57
Telophase: The chromosomes begin to uncoil to form ... ?
 
Chromatin threads
58
Telophase: The spindle ... ?
 
Dissolves
59
Telophase: The nucleolus ... ?
 
Reappears
60
Telophase: The cytoplasm divides forming the two daughter cells with the ... ?
 
Return to interphase
61
Cytokinesis: Cytokinesis is the division of the cytoplasm in .... ?
 
The formation of daughter cells
62
Cytokinesis: It begins during ... ?
 
Telophase
63
Cytokinesis: A cleavage furrow forms--the precursor of the cell membrane. This...
 
Each with a new complete nucleus
64
Cytokinesis: In plants, a cell plate forms which is ... ?
 
Part of the cell wall
65
Mitosis: Each replicated cell receives exactly the same chromosomes .... ? 
 
As the original cell
66
Mitosis: The cytoplasmic organelles are evenly distributed during cytokinesis and...
 
Replicate by themselves
67
Mitosis is ... , not sexual.
 
Asexual
68
The daughter cells are exact clones ... ?
 
Of the original cell
69
The significance of meiosis is to half the number of chromosomes during gamete formation (......
 
To maker smaller
70
Involves .... ?. There are 2 parents.
 
Sexual reproduction
71
Each parent contributes a specialized sex cell (hamete). The gamete is ... ?
 
Haploid (1n).
72
The male gamete is the ... ?
 
Spermatozoon (sperm)
73
The female gemete is the ... ?
 
Ovum (egg)
74
Gemetogenesis is the development of gametes and occurs ... ?
 
In the gonads
75
Male gonads are ... ?
 
Testes
76
Female gonads are ... ?
 
Ovaries
77
During fertilization, the sperm and egg fuse to form a zygote (2n). Subsequent divisions ......
 
Are diploid.
78
The net effect of meiosis is to provide the offspring with the ... ?
 
Genetic background of both parents
79
The chance of combinations of these haploid gametes can result in zygote configurations (mutations)...
 
Survive; and the bad do not.
80
There are two cell divisions, but the chromosomes are only duplicated once. In mitosis there...
 
One duplication of chromosomes 
81
All the resulting cells are ... ?
 
Haploid (1n)
82
In a diploid somatic (body) cell, chromosomes ... ?
 
Occur as pairs
83
Each set of chromosomes is a homologous pair and each member is a ... ?
 
Homologous chromosome or homologue or chromatid.
84
One member of the homologous pair was inherited from the female parent; the ... ?
 
Other was inherited from the male parent.
85
Homologues look alike. THey have the same length, centromere position, and ... ?
 
Banding patterns.
86
A specific location on one homologue contains the same gene that occurs at the same location...
 
Homologue.
87
First meiotic division: this phase is also called meiosis 1 or .... ?
 
Reduction division
88
Prior to meiosis 1, DNA replication occurs forming 2 sister chromatids for ... 
 
Each chromosome
89
During meiosis 1, homologous chromosomes come together and line up on the equator side by side....
 
Synapses
90
In synapsis, the two sets (pairs) of homologous chromosomes are ... ?
 
Described as  tetrads or bivalents
91
Crossing-over .... ?
 
Occurs at this point
92
Nonsister chromatid arms cross each other at various points in a .... ?
 
Seemingly arbitrary fashion
93
The points where the arms cross are termed chiasmata (singular: chiasma), and serve as junctures...
 
That of its sister chromatid.
94
Because of crossing-over, the genetic instructions from a father and a mother are mixed, and...
 
Chromosomes with recombined genes.
95
Crossing over increases genetic ... ?
 
Variability
96
The homologues of each tetrad separate and move to opposite poles. The centromeres remain intact,...
 
They do not cleave
97
Cytokinesis separates the 2 daughter cells ... ?
 
Which are now haploid
98
Second meiotic division. This phase is also called ... ?
 
Meiosis II or equatorial division
99
No replication of chromosomes .... ?
 
Occurs at this stage
100
The centromeres cleave (separate) releasing the 2 sister chromatids, each of which migrates...
 
To an opposite pole
101
Cytokinesis separates the 2 sister chromatids which then ... ? 
 
Develop into haploid gametes
102
Genetic recombination insures that offspring have a different combination of genes than their...
 
1) Crossing-over of nonsister chromatids, 2) Independent assortment of homologous chromosomes,...
103
What's the first mechanism?
 
Crossing-over of nonsister chromatids
104
What's the second mechanism?
 
Independent assortment of homologous chromosomes
105
What's the third mechanism?
 
Fertilization results in combinations of genetically different gametes
106
Crossing-over of ... ?
 
Nonsister chromatids
107
Independent assortment of ... ?
 
Homologous chromosomes
108
Independent assortment of homologous chromosomes: Independent alignment of tetrads at the equator...
 
Different combinations of chromosomes
109
Comparison of meiosis to mitosis: DNA replication takes place only once during both meiosis...
 
Only one during mitosis
110
Comparison of meiosis to mitosis: Four daughter cells (gametes) are produced by meiosis. Mitosis...
 
Two daughter cells
111
Comparison of meiosis to mitosis: The four gametes formed by meiosis are hapoid. The daughter...
 
The parental cell (mother cell)
112
Comparison of meiosis to mitosis: The four daughter cells from meiosis are not genetically...
 
To the mother cell
113
Meiosis occurs in the gonads during spermatogenesis and ... ? 
 
Oogenesis in humans
114
Oogenesis occurs in the ... ?
 
Ovaries
115
Spermatogenesis occurs in the ... ?
 
Testes
116
A primary spermatocyte, with 46 chromosomes, divides by meiosis to form two secondary spermatocytes...
 
23 duplicated chromosomes
117
Secondary spermatocytes divide to produce four spermatids ... ?
 
Also with 23 daughter chromosomes
118
Spermatids then differentiate ... ?
 
Into motile sperm
119
Meiotic cell division in mals always results in ... ?
 
Four cells that become sperm
120
Unlike the four sperm produced from a single primary spermatocyte, only one ovum is generated...
 
Site within the uterus.
121
A priamry oocyte, with 46 chromosomes, divides by meiosis to form two cells, each with ......
 
23 duplicated chromosomes
122
One of the cells, a secondary oocyte, receives ... ?
 
Most of the cytoplasm
123
The other cell,  a polar body (the first polar body), is ... ?
 
Discarded and disintegrates
124
A secondary oocyte begins meiosis II, but then temporarily stops to undergo ovulation, which...
 
Release from the ovary
125
The ovum enters the oviduct (Fallopian tube) where fertilization by a ... ?
 
Sperm may occur
126
If a sperm enters the secondary oocyte, the oocyte is activated to continue meiosis II ......
 
Through to completion
127
Another polar body (the second polar body) is ... ?
 
Generated and discarded
128
The result of fertilization is mature diploid cel termed a zygote which becomes the .... ?
 
First diploid cell of a new individual
129
Mitosis comes from the Greek word mitos which means ... ?
 
Threads
130
What process occurs in organisms that reproduce asexually? 
 
Mitosis
131
 What process is absolutely necessary for sexual reproduction to occur?
 
Meiosis
132
Eukaryote DNA molecules have large amounts of ______________ dispersed among the DNA molecules.
 
Proteins
133
Each chromosome contains thousands of ... ?
 
Genes
134
Define chromosomes: 
 
Colored bodies containing genetic information
135
Define chromatid:
 
Concentrated form of a chromatin
136
Define sister chromatid:
 
Homologous pair
137
A chromatin is the chromosome in the ... ?
 
Nucleus
138
Chromatids that are attached at the Centromere are called what kind of chromatids?
 
Sister
139
Define centromere:
 
Centromere is the constricted part of the chromatin that joins the sister
140
Centromere joins duplicated DNA molecules that are called ... ?
 
Sister chromatids
141
Centromere position along the chromosome will not be in the exact location for every chromosome...
 
Varies
142
Microtubules attach to the kintochore of ... ?
 
Centromeres
143
Is a centromere permanent or temporary?
 
Temporary
144
Centromere is the attachment site for ... ?
 
Spindle fibers
145
What makes spindle fibers?
 
Microtubules
146
Different organisms have different number of chromosomes.  Some organisms have as many...
 
1000
147
All members of the same species will have the same ______________________ of chromosomes
 
Number 
148
The number of chromosomes remains  ?   throughout a life cycle
 
Constant
149
List in proper sequence the stages of Mitosis
 
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase (PMAT)
150
In which stages of mitosis does each chromosome consist of two DNA molecules?
 
Prophase and Metaphase
151
Chromatids detach from one another and become visibly separate chromosomes during what...
 
Anaphase and Telophase
152
New nuclei are formed during what stage of mitosis?
 
Telophase
153
Are homologous chromosomes paired during mitosis?  (yes/no)
 
Yes and No (wth?)
154
In .... ? ... chromosomes align at the spindle equator (think stages of mitosis)
 
Metaphase
155
In .... ? ... sister chromatids become individual chromosomes  (think stages of mitosis)
 
Anaphase
156
In .... ? ... centromeres divide (think stages of mitosis)
 
Prophase (not completely sure about this)
157
In .... ? ... chromosomes move apart  (think stages of mitosis)
 
Anaphase
158
In .... ? ...  spindle microtubules shorten, pulling chromosomes toward 
the...
 
Anaphase
159
Chromosomes are duplicated during  ?  of the cell’s life cycle
 
Interphase
160
Plants have a rigid cell wall which prevents the plant cell from being pinched in two. Instead...
 
Cell-plate
161
Chromosomes (containing DNA and carrying genes) replicate during _____ of the cell cycle
 
Mitosis
162
Chromosomes condense and microtubular spindle develops during this phase of mitosis ... ?
 
Prophase
163
During what stage of mitosis does homologous pairs of chromosomes line up on the equatorial...
 
Metaphase
164
At this stage of mitosis sister chromatids joined at their centromeres are attached to spindle...
 
Metaphase
165
During this phase of mitosis the centromeres break apart as the separated sister chromatids...
 
Anaphase
166
Cytokinesis occurs at the end of  ________
 
Telophase
167
New daughter nuclear membranes form during this phase of mitosis. _____
 
Telophase
168
Spindle fibers are about 25nm in diameter and are formed from ______
 
Microtubules
169
Physical separation of the cytoplasm occurs during ________
 
Cytokinesis
170
_____ move to opposite poles and form spindle fibers
 
Centrioles
171
. Two sister chromatids are joined at the ___________
 
Centromere
172
Chromosome name changes during its life cycle from chromatin to chromatid.  What name...
 
Sister-chromatid
173
Sexual reproduction results in new combinations of genetic _____
 
Traits
174
If meiosis did NOT occur in sexually reproducing organisms, the chromosome number would...
 
Increase
175
Through ________________________, offspring are provided with new gene combinations
 
Meiosis
176
Through meiosis, parental DNA is divided and distributed to forming gametes.  This results...
 
Haploid number
177
Meiosis allows alternate forms of genes to be _____ This enables offspring to have a new...
 
Shuffled
178
Different, or alternative, forms of the same gene are called ______
 
Alleles
179
In meiosis, each gamete receives one member of each pair of homologous chromosomes and...
 
Gametes
180
Homologous chromosomes are in pairs, one chromosome from each pair comes from the father...
 
Mother
181
Homologous chromosomes may exchange parts during ____________ of meiosis
 
Crossing-over (prophase1 )
182

 

183
Crossing over alters the composition of chromosomes and results in new combinations of  ___________...
 
Alleles
184
Crossing over is one of the most important events in meiosis because it produces new arrays...
 
Alleles
185
 If a diploid organism has a genome consisting of 3 chromosomes, it can produce ________...
 
8
186
The haploid number for human chromosomes is ____.  The diploid number is _____.  Altogether...
 
23,46,92
187
spermatogonium is ... ?
 
Diploid
188
 primary spermatocyt ... ?
 
Diploid
189
 secondary spermatocyte ... ?
 
Haploid
190
spermatids ... ?
 
Haploid
191
oogonium ... ?
 
Diploid
192
primary oocyte ... ?
 
Diploid
193
secondary oocyt ... ?
 
Haploid
194
ovum ... ?
 
Haploid
195
polar bodies ... ?
 
Haploid
196
Polar bodies do ________________ develop into a gamete
 
Not
197
A pine tree is called a sporophyte because it produces spores by (mitosis or meiosis?)
 
Meiosis


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