BIOL 1115: Chapter 13 VOCAB Langara

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Created Nov 9, 2010
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tranc3r
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Heredity
The transmission of traits from one generation to the next.
Variation
Offspring differ somewhat from parents and siblings
Genetics
The study of heredity and variation
Locus
The PHYSICAL address (specific locatino) of a gene/trait.
Asexual Reproduction
A single individual passes along copies of all its genes to its offspring (Cloning/mitosis).
Budding
Form of asexual reproduction that multicellular eukaryotes undogo.
Sexual Reproduction
Form of reproduction that mixes the chromosomes of parents' gametes.
Gametes
Sex cells
Somatic Cells
Human cells that have 46 chromosomes
Karyotype
The number and appearance of chromosomes in the nucleus of a eukaryote
Homologous chromosome
Chromosomes having the same size, shape, binding pattern, and array of genes
Sex chromosomes
The X and Y chromosomes.
Autosomes
Chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
Haploid
A cell that has only half the number of chromosomes that the other cells of that organism...
Diploid
An organism or cell having the normal amount of DNA per cell.
Zygote
Feritilized egg
Meiosis
Process where chromosomes are halved.
Alternation of generation
A life cycle that includes both haploid and diploid multicellular stages.
Gametophyte
The plant which produces gametes by mitosis in order to produce a zygote (haploid moment of...
Sporophyte
The plant which produces spores by meiosis in order to produce gametophytes (diploid moment...
Spores
Structures found on plants that release gametes into their environment.
Homologous Chromosomes
A chromosome with the same gene sequence as another.
Tetrads
Found in homologous chromosomes, the structure contains 4 chromatids
Synapsis
The side by side pairing of homologous maternal and paternal chromosomes at the start of meiosis
Chiasmata
Crossing over of genetic information between the homologous pairs.
Centrosome
An organelle that serves as the main microtubule organizing center of the animal cell.
Kinetochore
The protein structure on chromosomes where the spindle fibers attach during division to pull...
Reduction Division
The number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half.
Crossing Over
The exchange of genes between homologous chromosomes.
Recombinant Chromosomes
The result of the combined genes by the crossing of alleles between two homologous pairs.


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