Bio Retake Test 1

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Solar radiation makes several other energy sources possible, including?
A) Biofuels
B) Wind energy
C) Nuclear energy
D) Both A and B
E) A, B, and C
Natural gas is?
A) The most damaging to the environment when extracted
B) Often associated with coal and petrolem deposits
C) Only produced by bacteria during decomposition
D) Trapped over some cities for commercial use
E) Still much more expensive than other fossil fuels
Hydroelectric power generation?
A) Produces high quantities of greenhouse gases
B) Has no undesirable environmental effects
C) Uses fuel cells to generate electricity
D) Is an alternative to fossil fuels that produces fewer greenhouse gasses
E) Produces pollutants that contribute significantly to acid precipitation
Sustainable development involves?
A) Searching for more deposits of fossil fuels
B) Developing better transportation by building more roads
C) Reducing consumption, increasing efficiency, and using renewable energies
D) Using all resources at maximum rates
E) Larger buildings using stronger design and materials
Coal combustion is responsible for the following environmental effects:
A) Accumulations of mercury in the fatty tissues of animals and fish
B) Increased greenhouse gas emissions
C) Adding sulfur dioxide to the atmosphere and contributing to acid rain
D) A and B
E) A, B, and C
Generally speaking, deserts are located in places where air masses are usually?
A) Rising
B) Descending
C) expanding
D) Humid
E) Tropical
The main reason polar regions anr cooler than the equator is because?
A) the poles are permaneltly tilted away from the sun
B) The poles are farther from the sun
C) There is more ice at the poles
D) sunlight strikes the poes at a lower angle
Which of the following statements is a correct match between a biome and its description?
A) Tundra; long, cold, moist winters and short summers are typical of this biome dominated by gymnosperms
B) Deciduous forest; a prolonged, relatively mild period with ample precipitation alternates with cold period when plants become dormant
C) Desert; this biome is dominated by dwarf shrubs, grasses and sedges that can tolerate long dark winters.
D) Taiga; this biome has the greatest diversity of species
E) Temperate grasslands; long, snowy winters as well as evergreen trees such as pine and fir
The atmosphere around Earth can cause global warming primarily because?
A) Fossil fuels release heat
B) The ozone layer is being depleted
C) Plants absorb CO2
D) Plants release CO2
E) Greenhouse gasses trap heat in the environment
Which of the examples below provides appropriate abiotic and biotic factors that might determine the distribution of the species in question?
A) A prairie dog population after a prairie fire; increased predation and decreased food availability
B) The abundance and diversity of phytoplankton communityes; available sunlight and increased salinity in the top few meters of the ocean
C) WIld flower abundance and diversity; the amount of nitrate and phosphate in the soil
D) Brook trout; the pH and dissolved oxygen concentration in the stram
E) Native alpine grasses; the number of frost-free days and competition with species of introdued grassses
Which marine zone would have the highest rates of primary productivity (photosynthesis)?
A) Continental shelf
B) Aphotic
C) Pelagic
D) Benthic
Water moves from land to the atmosphere through?
A) Transpiration only
B) Evaporation only
C) Precipitation only
D) Transpiration and evaporation
E) Evaporation and precipitation
An unexpected freeze that kills a population of chipmunks is an example of?
A) A population cycle
B) A density-independent factor
C) An intrinsic factor
D) A density-dependent factor
You arrive back in the United States after having visited a foreign country located on another continent. The customs agent stops the person in front of you and confiscates the fruit basket this person is bringing home. Being the knowlegeable person you are, you calmy explain to your enraged fellow traveler that the most likely reason for the detainment is that the fruit basked may be?
A) Contaminated with CFCs that will damage the ozone layer above North America
B) Carrying endangered fruit
C) Contaminated with sufficient DDT to cause serious harm to anyone who eats the fruit
D) Carrying a non-native species that could damage North American ecosystesm

The population in the figure below will most likely?
A) Stabilize within 20 years
B) Increase for many years
C) Not change
D) Reach zero population growth within 10 years
E) Decrease within 20 years
All of the statements below accurately describe predator-prey relationships, EXCEPT:
A) Cryptic coloration is an adaptation that protects prey
B) An opportunistic life strategy ensures the survival of some prey population
C) A rise in the predator populatin is followed by a fall in the prey population
D) The population of predators eliminates the population of prey
Which statement accurately describes the relationship between a country and its energy use?
A) Residents of more populated countries use more energy per person
B) English-speaking countries tend to use more energy per person
C) Residents in colder climates use more energy per person
D) Residents of industrilized countries use more energy per person

Which of the following choices matches this figure?
A) Crab spiders produce hundreds of tiny offspring, Most of which do not survive
B) The century plant grows for many years and reproduces and releases hundreds of seeds just once before it withers and dies. Because of the dry desert environmnet in which it lives, many of the seeds do not survive or are eaten
C) In some species of lizards and rodents, survivorship is constant over the life span
D) Dolphins produce only single offspring at a time and provide parental care for many months
E) During "mating frenzies," male and female squid aggregate and release hundreds of eggs and sperm into the water column. The fertilized eggs are often quickly preyed on by fish
What is one way in which energy flow differs fron chemical cycling?
A) Energy can both enter and leave an ecosystem; chemical elements always remain within a single ecosystem
B) Energy cannot be created or destroyed; chemical elements can be created and destroyed
C) Energy can enter but cannot leave an ecosystem; chemical elements can leabe but cannot enter an ecosystem
D) Energy flows from lower to higher trophic levels; chemicals ycle from higher to lower trophic levels
E) Energy flow is unidirectional; chemical elements can be recycles
Why is energy lost when herbivores eat primary producers?
A) Digestion takes place so rapidly that very little energy is absorbed
B) Primary producesrs cannot produce once eaten
C) Primary producers have energy stored in indigestible substances
D) Most primary producers contain no usable energy for herbivores
The type of population growth occurring between the years 1820 and 1850 is most accurately termed?
A) Stable
B) Exponential
C) Density-dependent
D) Logistic
The dashed line on the graph above represents the?
A) Maximum population size
B) Average birth rate
C) Biotic potential of the population
D) Carrying capacity of the environment
The graph above indicates that the sheep population most likely is?
A) Growing in excess of its carrying capacity, since fluctuations in population size occurred after 1850
B) Shifting from a K-selected strategy to an r-selected strategy
C) Stable after 1850 under the effects of density-dependent regulating factors
D) Regulated by density-independent factors
Which statement correctly describes what is happening in the sheep population between 1850 and 1860?
A) The per capita death rate is increasing over the ten year period
B) The per capita birth rate is increasing over the ten year period
C) The rate of growth is increasing over the ten year period
D) Both A and B are true
E) Both B and C are true
(Look at paper)
Based on the relationship between Plasmodium spp. and humans, these organisms would b?
A) Decomposers
B) Parasites
C) Hosts
D) Carnivores
E) Producers
(Look at paper)
Humans, mosquitoes, and Plasmodium together would be concerded an?
A) Biosphere
B) Community
C) Ecosystem
D) Population
E) Population and community
(Look at paper)
Which of the following is not an example of a mutualism?
A) Rancher ants that protect aphids in exchange for sugar-rich honeydew
B) Birds eating insects on the bodies of giraffes
C) Bacteria fixing nitrogen in plants
D) Fungi residing in plant roots, such as endomycorrhizae
E) Birds eating insects jumping out of the path of army ants
If a fat-soluble but poorly metabolized substance such as DDT gets into the ecosystem shown above, the highest tissue concentrations will most likely occur in which of the following?
A) Phytoplankton
B) Zooplankton
C) Abalones
D) Sea Otters
E) Seals
Indicate which of the organisms in this ecosystem are primary consumers? (CHOOSE ALL THAT APPLY)
A) Phytoplankton
B) Abalone
C) Sea Urchins
D) Herring
E) Cod
In similar rocky coastal ecosystems where sea otters have disappeared due to human harvesting or killer whale predation, the kelp forests also disappear and the species diversity of the community decreases drastically. In these ecosystems, the sea otter can best be described as a?
A) Top carnivore
B) Keystone species
C) Primary producer
D) Secondary herbivore
E) Dominant species

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