Bio Chapter 13

Bio Chapter 13 Flashcards About Biology
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1) What is a genome?A) The complete complement of an organism's genesB) A specific set of polypeptides within each cellC) A specialized polymer of four different kinds of monomersD) A specific segment of DNA that is found within a prokaryotic chromosomeE) An ordered display of chromosomes arranged from largest to smalles
 
A) The complete complement of an organism's genes

2) Which of the following statements about genes is incorrect?A) Genes correspond to segments of DNA.B) Many genes contain the information needed for cells to synthesize enzymes and otherproteins.C) During fertilization, both the sperm and the ovum contribute genes to the resulting fertilizedegg.D) One gene only is used in a specific cell type.E) Genetic differences can result from changes in the DNA called mutations
 
D) One gene only is used in a specific cell type.

3) Asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction differ in all but which of the following ways?A) Individuals reproducing asexually transmit 100% of their genes to their progeny, whereasindividuals reproducing sexually transmit only 50%.B) Asexual reproduction produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parents, whereassexual reproduction gives rise to genetically distinct offspring.C) Asexual reproduction involves a single parent, whereas sexual reproduction involves two.D) Asexual reproduction requires only mitosis, whereas sexual reproduction always involvesmeiosis.E) Asexual reproduction is utilized only by fungi and protists, whereas sexual reproduction isutilized only by plants and animals
 
E) Asexual reproduction is utilized only by fungi and protists, whereas sexual reproduction isutilized only by plants and animals

4) If a horticulturist breeding gardenias succeeds in having a single plant with a particularlydesirable set of traits, which of the following would be her most probable and efficient route toestablishing a line of such plants?A) Backtrack through her previous experiments to obtain another plant with the same traits.B) Breed this plant with another plant with much weaker traits.C) Clone the plant asexually to produce an identical one.D) Force the plant to self-pollinate to obtain an identical one.E) Add nitrogen to the soil of the offspring of this plant so the desired traits continue
 
C) Clone the plant asexually to produce an identical one.

5) Asexual reproduction results in identical offspring unless which of the following occurs?A) Natural selectionB) CloningC) Crossing overD) MutationE) Environmental chang
 
D) Mutation

6) The human genome is minimally contained in which of the following?A) Every human cellB) Each human chromosomeC) The entire DNA of a single humanD) The entire human populationE) Each human gen
 
A) Every human cell

7) A gene's location along a chromosome is known as which of the following?A) AlleleB) SequenceC) LocusD) VariantE) Trai
 
C) Locus

8) What is a karyotype?A) The set of unique physical characteristics that define an individualB) The collection of all the mutations present within the genome of an individualC) The combination of chromosomes found in a gameteD) A system of classifying cell nucleiE) A display of every pair of homologous chromosomes within a cell, organized according tosize and shap
 
E) A display of every pair of homologous chromosomes within a cell, organized according tosize and shap

9) At which stage of mitosis are chromosomes usually photographed in the preparation of akaryotype?A) ProphaseB) MetaphaseC) AnaphaseD) TelophaseE) Interphas
 
B) Metaphase

10) The human X and Y chromosomesA) are both present in every somatic cell of males and females alike.B) are of approximately equal size and number of genes.C) are almost entirely homologous, despite their different names.D) include genes that determine an individual's sex.4E) include only genes that govern sex determinatio
 
D) include genes that determine an individual's sex.4

11) Which of the following is true of a species that has a chromosome number of 2n = 16?A) The species is diploid with 32 chromosomes per cell.B) The species has 16 sets of chromosomes per cell.C) Each cell has 8 homologous pairs.D) During the S phase of the cell cycle there will be 32 separate chromosomes.E) A gamete from this species has 4 chromosomes
 
C) Each cell has 8 homologous pairs.

12) Eukaryotic sexual life cycles show tremendous variation. Of the following elements, whichdo all sexual life cycles have in common?I. Alternation of generationsII. MeiosisIII. FertilizationIV. GametesV. SporesA) I, IV, and VB) I, II, and IVC) II, III, and IVD) II, IV, and VE) All of the abov
 
C) II, III, and IV

13) Which of these statements is false?A) In humans, each of the 22 maternal autosomes has a homologous paternal chromosome.B) In humans, the 23rd pair, the sex chromosomes, determines whether the person is female(XX) or male (XY).C) Single, haploid (n) sets of chromosomes in ovum and sperm unite during fertilization,forming a diploid (2n), single-celled zygote.D) At sexual maturity, ovaries and testes produce diploid gametes by meiosis.E) Sexual life cycles differ with respect to the relative timing of meiosis and fertilization
 
D) At sexual maturity, ovaries and testes produce diploid gametes by meiosis.

14) In animals, meiosis results in gametes, and fertilization results inA) spores.B) gametophytes.C) zygotes.D) sporophytes.E) clones
 
C) zygotes

15) Referring to a plant sexual life cycle, which of the following terms describes the process thatleads directly to the formation of gametes?A) Sporophyte meiosisB) Gametophyte mitosisC) Gametophyte meiosis5D) Sporophyte mitosisE) Alternation of generation
 
B) Gametophyte mitosis

16) Which of the following is an example of alternation of generations?A) A grandparent and grandchild each has dark hair, but the parent has blond hair.B) A diploid plant (sporophyte) produces, by meiosis, a spore that gives rise to a multicellular,haploid pollen grain (gametophyte).C) A diploid animal produces gametes by meiosis, and the gametes undergo fertilization toproduce a diploid zygote.D) A haploid mushroom produces gametes by mitosis, and the gametes undergo fertilization,which is immediately followed by meiosis.E) A diploid cell divides by mitosis to produce two diploid daughter cells, which then fuse toproduce a tetraploid cell
 
B) A diploid plant (sporophyte) produces, by meiosis, a spore that gives rise to a multicellular,haploid pollen grain (gametophyte).

17) Which of the life cycles is typical for animals?A) I onlyB) II onlyC) III onlyD) I and IIE) I and II
 
A) I only

18) Which of the life cycles is typical for plants and some algae?A) I onlyB) II onlyC) III onlyD) I and IIE) I and II
 
C) III only

19) Which of the life cycles is typical for most fungi and some protists?A) I onlyB) II onlyC) III onlyD) I and IIE) I and II
 
B) II only

20) In part III of Figure 13.1, the progression of events corresponds to which of the followingseries?A) Zygote, mitosis, gametophyte, mitosis, fertilization, zygote, mitosisB) Sporophyte, meiosis, spore, mitosis, gametophyte, mitosis, gametes, fertilizationC) Fertilization, mitosis, multicellular haploid, mitosis, spores, sporophyteD) Gametophyte, meiosis, zygote, spores, sporophyte, zygoteE) Meiosis, fertilization, zygote, mitosis, adult, meiosi
 
E) Meiosis, fertilization, zygote, mitosis, adult, meiosis

21) In a life cycle such as that shown in part III of Figure 13.1, if the zygote's chromosomenumber is 10, which of the following will be true?A) The sporophyte's chromosome number per cell is 10 and the gametophyte's is 5.B) The sporophyte's chromosome number per cell is 5 and the gametophyte's is 10.C) The sporophyte and gametophyte each have 10 chromosomes per cell.D) The sporophyte and gametophyte each have 5 chromosomes per cell.E) The sporophyte and gametophyte each have 20 chromosomes per cell
 
A) The sporophyte's chromosome number per cell is 10 and the gametophyte's is 5.

22) The karyotype of one species of primate has 48 chromosomes. In a particular female, celldivision goes awry and she produces one of her eggs with an extra chromosome (25). The mostprobable source of this error would be a mistake in which of the following?A) Mitosis in her ovaryB) Metaphase I of one meiotic eventC) Telophase II of one meiotic eventD) Telophase I of one meiotic eventE) Either anaphase I or I
 
E) Either anaphase I or I

23) A given organism has 46 chromosomes in its karyotype. We can therefore conclude which ofthe following?7A) It must be human.B) It must be a primate.C) It must be an animal.D) It must be sexually reproducing.E) Its gametes must have 23 chromosomes
 
E) Its gametes must have 23 chromosomes

24) A triploid cell contains three sets of chromosomes. If a cell of a usually diploid species with42 chromosomes per cell is triploid, this cell would be expected to have which of the following?A) 63 chromosomes in 31 1/2 pairsB) 63 chromosomes in 21 sets of 3C) 63 chromosomes, each with three chromatidsD) 21 chromosome pairs and 21 unique chromosome
 
B) 63 chromosomes in 21 sets of 3

25) A karyotype results from which of the following?A) A natural cellular arrangement of chromosomes in the nucleusB) An inherited ability of chromosomes to arrange themselvesC) The ordering of human chromosome imagesD) The cutting and pasting of parts of chromosomes to form the standard arrayE) The separation of homologous chromosomes at metaphase I of meiosi
 
C) The ordering of human chromosome images

26) After telophase I of meiosis, the chromosomal makeup of each daughter cell isA) diploid, and the chromosomes are each composed of a single chromatid.B) diploid, and the chromosomes are each composed of two chromatids.C) haploid, and the chromosomes are each composed of a single chromatid.D) haploid, and the chromosomes are each composed of two chromatids.E) tetraploid, and the chromosomes are each composed of two chromatids
 
D) haploid, and the chromosomes are each composed of two chromatids.

27) How do cells at the completion of meiosis compare with cells that have replicated their DNAand are just about to begin meiosis?A) They have twice the amount of cytoplasm and half the amount of DNA.B) They have half the number of chromosomes and half the amount of DNA.C) They have the same number of chromosomes and half the amount of DNA.D) They have half the number of chromosomes and one-fourth the amount of DNA.E) They have half the amount of cytoplasm and twice the amount of DNA
 
D) They have half the number of chromosomes and one-fourth the amount of DNA

28) When does the synaptonemal complex disappear?A) Late prophase of meiosis IB) During fertilization or fusion of gametesC) Early anaphase of meiosis ID) Mid-prophase of meiosis IIE) Late metaphase of meiosis I
 
A) Late prophase of meiosis I

For the following questions, match the key event of meiosis with the stages listed below.I. Prophase IV. Prophase IIII. Metaphase I VI. Metaphase IIIII. Anaphase I VII. Anaphase IIIV. Telophase I VIII. Telophase II29) Tetrads of chromosomes are aligned at the equator of the spindle; alignment determinesindependent assortment.A) IB) IIC) IVD) VIIE) VII
 
D) VII

30) Synapsis of homologous pairs occurs; crossing over may occur.A) IB) IIC) IVD) VIE) VI
 
E) VI

31) Centromeres of sister chromatids disjoin and chromatids separate.A) IIB) IIIC) IVD) VE) VI
 
E) VI

32) Which of the following happens at the conclusion of meiosis I?A) Homologous chromosomes are separated.B) The chromosome number per cell is conserved.C) Sister chromatids are separated.D) Four daughter cells are formed.E) The sperm cells elongate to form a head and a tail end
 
A) Homologous chromosomes are separated.

33) Which diagram represents prophase I of meiosis?A) IB) IIC) IVD) VE) V
 
C) IV

34) A cell divides to produce two daughter cells that are genetically different.A) The statement is true for mitosis only.B) The statement is true for meiosis I only.C) The statement is true for meiosis II only.D) The statement is true for mitosis and meiosis I.E)The statement is true for mitosis and meiosis I
 
B) The statement is true for meiosis I only.

35) Homologous chromosomes synapse and crossing over occurs.A) The statement is true for mitosis only.B) The statement is true for meiosis I only.C) The statement is true for meiosis II only.D) The statement is true for mitosis and meiosis I.E) The statement is true for mitosis and meiosis II
 
B) The statement is true for meiosis I only.

36) Chromatids are separated from each other.A) The statement is true for mitosis only.B) The statement is true for meiosis I only.C) The statement is true for meiosis II only.D) The statement is true for mitosis and meiosis I.E) The statement is true for mitosis and meiosis II
 
E) The statement is true for mitosis and meiosis II
37) Independent assortment of chromosomes occurs.A) The statement is true for mitosis only.B) The statement is true for meiosis I only.C) The statement is true for meiosis II only.10D) The statement is true for mitosis and meiosis I.E) The statement is true for mitosis and meiosis II.
 
B) The statement is true for meiosis I only.

38) You have in your possession a microscope slide with meiotic cells on it and a lightmicroscope. What would you look for if you wanted to identify metaphase I cells on the slide?A) A visible nuclear envelopeB) Separated sister chromatids at each pole of the cellC) Tetrads lined up at the center of the cellD) A synaptonemal complexE) A cleavage furro
 
C) Tetrads lined up at the center of the cell

39) If the cells were from a plant, which sample might represent a gametophyte cell?A) IB) IIC) IIID) Either I or IIE) Either II or II
 
A) I

40) Which sample of DNA might be from a nerve cell arrested in G0 of the cell cycle?A) IB) IIC) IIID) Either I or IIE) Either II or II
 
D) Either I or II

41) Which sample might represent an animal cell in G2 phase of the cell cycle?A) IB) IIC) IIID) Both I and IIE) Both II and II
 
B) II

42) Which sample might represent a sperm cell?A) IB) IIC) IIID) Either I or IIE) Either II or II
 
C) III

The following questions refer to the essential steps in meiosis described below.1. Formation of four new nuclei, each with half the chromosomes present in the parental nucleus2. Alignment of tetrads at the metaphase plate3. Separation of sister chromatids4. Separation of the homologues; no uncoupling of the centromere5. Synapsis; chromosomes moving to the middle of the cell in pair
43) From the descriptions above, which of the following is the order that most logicallyillustrates a sequence of meiosis?A) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5B) 5, 4, 2, 1, 3C) 5, 3, 2, 4, 1D) 4, 5, 2, 1, 3E) 5, 2, 4, 3, 1
 
E) 5, 2, 4, 3, 1

44) Which of the steps take place in both mitosis and meiosis?A) 2B) 3C) 5D) 2 and 3 onlyE) 2, 3, and
 
D) 2 and 3 only

45) Which of the following occurs in meiosis but not in mitosis?A) Chromosome replicationB) Synapsis of chromosomesC) Production of daughter cellsD) Alignment of chromosomes at the equatorE) Condensation of chromati
 
B) Synapsis of chromosomes

46) If an organism is diploid and a certain gene found in the organism has 18 known alleles(variants), then any given organism of that species can/must have which of the following?A) At most, 2 alleles for that geneB) Up to 18 chromosomes with that geneC) Up to 18 genes for that traitD) A haploid number of 9 chromosomesE) Up to, but not more than, 18 different trait
 
A) At most, 2 alleles for that gene

47) Whether during mitosis or meiosis, sister chromatids are held together by proteins referred toas cohesions. Such molecules must have which of the following properties?A) They must persist throughout the cell cycle.B) They must be removed before meiosis can begin.C) They must be removed before anaphase can occur.D) They must reattach to chromosomes during G1.E) They must be intact for nuclear envelope reformation
 
D) They must reattach to chromosomes during G1

48) Experiments with cohesions have found thatA) cohesions are protected from destruction throughout meiosis I and II.B) cohesions are cleaved from chromosomes at the centromere before anaphase I.C) cohesions are protected from cleavage at the centromere during meiosis I.D) a protein cleaves cohesions before metaphase I.E) a protein that cleaves cohesions would cause cellular death
 
C) cohesions are protected from cleavage at the centromere during meiosis I.

49) A tetrad includes which of the following sets of DNA strands?A) Two single-stranded chromosomes that have synapsedB) Two sets of sister chromatids that have synapsedC) Four sets of sister chromatidsD) Four sets of unique chromosomesE) Eight sets of sister chromatid
 
B) Two sets of sister chromatids that have synapsed

50) A certain female's chromosomes 12 both have the blue gene and chromosomes 19 both havethe long gene. As cells in her ovaries undergo meiosis, her resulting eggs (ova) may have whichof the following?A) Either two chromosomes 12 with blue genes or two with orange genesB) Either two chromosomes 19 with long genes or two with short genesC) Either one blue or one orange gene in addition to either one long and one short geneD) One chromosome 12 with one blue gene and one chromosome 19 with one long gen
 
D) One chromosome 12 with one blue gene and one chromosome 19 with one long gen

51) If a female of this species has one chromosome 12 with a blue gene and another chromosome12 with an orange gene, she will produce which of the following egg types?A) Only blue gene eggsB) Only orange gene eggsC) 1/2 blue and 1/2 orange gene eggsD) 3/4 blue and 1/4 orange gene eggsE) An indeterminate frequency of blue and orange gene egg
 
C) 1/2 blue and 1/2 orange gene eggs

52) A female with a paternal set of one orange and one long gene chromosomes and a maternalset comprised of one blue and one short gene chromosome is expected to produce which of thefollowing types of eggs after meiosis?A) All eggs will have maternal types of gene combinations.B) All eggs will have paternal types of gene combinations.C) Half the eggs will have maternal and half will have paternal combinations.D) Each egg has 1/4 chance of having blue long, blue short, orange long, or orange shortcombinations.E) Each egg has a 3/4 chance of having blue long, blue short, orange long, or orange shortcombinations
 
D) Each egg has 1/4 chance of having blue long, blue short, orange long, or orange shortcombinations.

53) Chiasmata are what we see under a microscope that let us know which of the following isoccurring?A) Asexual reproductionB) Meiosis IIC) Anaphase IID) Crossing overE) Separation of homolog
 
D) Crossing over

54) How does the sexual life cycle increase the genetic variation in a species?A) By allowing independent assortment of chromosomesB) By allowing fertilizationC) By increasing gene stabilityD) By conserving chromosomal gene orderE) By decreasing mutation frequenc
 
A) By allowing independent assortment of chromosomes

55) For a species with a haploid number of 23 chromosomes, how many different combinationsof maternal and paternal chromosomes are possible for the gametes?14A) 23B) 46C) 460D) 920E) About 8 million
 
E) About 8 million
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