Bio 263 Quiz 9 - Acid/Base Disorders

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Bio 263 Quiz 9 - Acid/Base Disorders


 
  
Created Nov 21, 2010
by
ssarni

 

 
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1
Types of acid/base imbalances
 
acidosis and alkalosis – both metabolic & respiratory
2
definition of metabolic imbalance
 
change in amount of fixed acids or in bicarbonate levels
3
examples of fixed acids
 
lactic acid, hydrochloric acid, ketoacids
4
the volatile acid in the body is
 
carbonic acid
5
carbonic acid is created through:
 
the hydrolysis of carbon dioxide, aka CO2 and water
6
carbonic acid dissociates into:
 
hydrogen and bicarbonate ions
7
carbonic acid's concentration can be altered via
 
respiration
8
for every 20 carbonic acid molecules formed, the body saves:
 
20 bicarbonate ions and 1 hydrogen ion; kidney excretes the rest
9
fixed acids are termed fixed because:
 
they cannot be eliminated by changing respiration
10
in metabolic acidosis, what happens:
 
pH decreases. Either acid increases or bicarbonate decreases.
11
In metabolic alkalosis, what happens:
 
pH increases. Either acid decreases or bicarbonate increases.
12
What does PaCO2 stand for?
 
Partial concentration/pressure of CO2 in arterial blood
13
in respiratory imbalance:
 
change in PacCO2
14
cause of respiratory acidosis:
 
accumulation of carbonic acid due to too much CO2
15
In respiratory acidosis, what happens:
 
CO2 undergoes hydration; hydrogen is released from carbonic acid; pH decreases
16
any condition causing _____ will cause respiratory acidosis
 
hypoventilation
17
as CO2 is retained, it will undergo ______ to form ______.
 
hydration; carbonic acid.
18
As carbonic acid is dissociated, ________ are released.
 
Hydrogen ions
19
causes of respiratory acidosis – 4
 
obstructive lung disease, neuromuscular weakness, damage to cervical spinal cord, depression...
20
respiratory center of the brain:
 
medulla & pons
21
manifestations of respiratory acidosis - 8
 
headache, decreased consciousness, disorientation, coma, ventricular arrhythmia, decreased...
22
nervous system manifestations of resp acidosis occur because:
 
blood vessels dilate in response
23
ventricular arrhythmia occurs with resp acidosis because:
 
electrical conduction and contractility are affected
24
pulmonary hypertension with resp acidosis occurs because:
 
as ventilation decreases, capillary restriction increases
25
cause of respiratory alkalosis:
 
loss of carbonic acid during hyperventilation causes excretion of CO2 and drop in pH
26
in respiratory alkalosis, what happens:
 
free hydrogen will be tied up with water; pH increases
27
causes of respiratory alkalosis/hyperventilation - 5
 
anxiety, hypoxia, CNS disorders, pregnancy, fever
28
respiratory and metabolic alkalosis causes
 
hypokalemia & hypocalcemia and vice versa
29
manifestations of respiratory alkalosis - 9
 
anxiety, dizziness, confusion, loss of consciousness, coma, numbness/tingling, tetany, Chvostek’s...
30
hypocalcemia occurs in alkalosis because:
 
calcium takes the place of hydrogen ions
31
for a respiratory problem, compensation and correction must:
 
employ a metabolic solution
32
compensation for respiratory acidosis
 
combine excess acid with available body buffers; excretion of hydrogen & retention &...
33
compensation for respiratory alkalosis
 
combine excess base with available body buffers; hydrogen secretion will be stopped &...
34
general etiology of metabolic acidosis
 
loss of bicarbonate ion or accumulation of non-volatile acid
35
specific causes of metabolic acidosis - 7
 
renal failure, diabetic ketoacidosis, decompensated shock (lactic acid), diarrhea, bilious...
36
renal failure causes acidosis because:
 
normal secretion of hydrogen and reabsorption of bicarbonate ion doesn't happen
37
poisons that cause acidosis: 4
 
antifreeze, aspirin, methanol, iron salts
38
manifestations of metabolic acidosis
 
deep/rapid respiration, acetone breath, decreased LOC, disorientation, coma, ventricular...
39
ventricular arrhythmia occurs with metabolic acidosis because:
 
electrical conduction and contractility are affected
40
for metabolic imbalance, compensation and correction must always
 
employ a respiratory solution
41
compensation for metabolic acidosis
 
combine excess acid with available body buffers, increased respiratory rate and depth to...
42
as CO2 is excreted via exhalation,
 
carbonic acid concentration is decreased and Hydrogen ions are tied to water
43
correction for metabolic acidosis
 
repair cause of imbalance, hydrogen excretion and bicarbonate reabsorption
44
etiology of metabolic alkalosis
 
excess bicarbonate or loss of non-volatile acid
45
specific causes of metabolic alkalosis - 4
 
gastric vomiting, nasogastric suctioning, diuretics that cause hydrogen excretion, ingestion...
46
manifestations of metabolic alkalosis
 
apathy, confusion, dizziness, parasthesias, shallow breathing, muscle spasm
47
manifestations of metabolic alkalosis are similar to those of:
 
hypokalemia
48
compensations for metabolic alkalosis
 
pair excess bicarbonate with available buffers, decrease rate of respiration to increase...
49
as CO2 accumulates, it will undergo:
 
hydration to produce carbonic acid, which will then dissociate and release hydrogen ions
50
two important urine buffers are:
 
phosphate & ammonia-ammonium


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