Bio 263 Quiz 9 - Acid/Base Disorders

Bio 263 Quiz 9 - Acid/Base Disorders
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Types of acid/base imbalances
acidosis and alkalosis – both metabolic & respiratory
definition of metabolic imbalance
change in amount of fixed acids or in bicarbonate levels
examples of fixed acids
lactic acid, hydrochloric acid, ketoacids
the volatile acid in the body is
carbonic acid
carbonic acid is created through:
the hydrolysis of carbon dioxide, aka CO2 and water
carbonic acid dissociates into:
hydrogen and bicarbonate ions
carbonic acid's concentration can be altered via
for every 20 carbonic acid molecules formed, the body saves:
20 bicarbonate ions and 1 hydrogen ion; kidney excretes the rest
fixed acids are termed fixed because:
they cannot be eliminated by changing respiration
in metabolic acidosis, what happens:
pH decreases. Either acid increases or bicarbonate decreases.
In metabolic alkalosis, what happens:
pH increases. Either acid decreases or bicarbonate increases.
What does PaCO2 stand for?
Partial concentration/pressure of CO2 in arterial blood
in respiratory imbalance:
change in PacCO2
cause of respiratory acidosis:
accumulation of carbonic acid due to too much CO2
In respiratory acidosis, what happens:
CO2 undergoes hydration; hydrogen is released from carbonic acid; pH decreases
any condition causing _____ will cause respiratory acidosis
as CO2 is retained, it will undergo ______ to form ______.
hydration; carbonic acid.
As carbonic acid is dissociated, ________ are released.
Hydrogen ions
causes of respiratory acidosis – 4
obstructive lung disease, neuromuscular weakness, damage to cervical spinal cord, depression of respiratory center due to drugs/damage
respiratory center of the brain:
medulla & pons
manifestations of respiratory acidosis - 8
headache, decreased consciousness, disorientation, coma, ventricular arrhythmia, decreased cardiac output, pulmonary hypertension, reduced blood flow to organs
nervous system manifestations of resp acidosis occur because:
blood vessels dilate in response
ventricular arrhythmia occurs with resp acidosis because:
electrical conduction and contractility are affected
pulmonary hypertension with resp acidosis occurs because:
as ventilation decreases, capillary restriction increases
cause of respiratory alkalosis:
loss of carbonic acid during hyperventilation causes excretion of CO2 and drop in pH
in respiratory alkalosis, what happens:
free hydrogen will be tied up with water; pH increases
causes of respiratory alkalosis/hyperventilation - 5
anxiety, hypoxia, CNS disorders, pregnancy, fever
respiratory and metabolic alkalosis causes
hypokalemia & hypocalcemia and vice versa
manifestations of respiratory alkalosis - 9
anxiety, dizziness, confusion, loss of consciousness, coma, numbness/tingling, tetany, Chvostek’s and Trousseau’s signs (from hypocalcemia)
hypocalcemia occurs in alkalosis because:
calcium takes the place of hydrogen ions
for a respiratory problem, compensation and correction must:
employ a metabolic solution
compensation for respiratory acidosis
combine excess acid with available body buffers; excretion of hydrogen & retention & production of bicarbonate via kidney
compensation for respiratory alkalosis
combine excess base with available body buffers; hydrogen secretion will be stopped & bicarbonate ion will be excreted by the kidney
general etiology of metabolic acidosis
loss of bicarbonate ion or accumulation of non-volatile acid
specific causes of metabolic acidosis - 7
renal failure, diabetic ketoacidosis, decompensated shock (lactic acid), diarrhea, bilious vomiting, poisoning, starvation
renal failure causes acidosis because:
normal secretion of hydrogen and reabsorption of bicarbonate ion doesn't happen
poisons that cause acidosis: 4
antifreeze, aspirin, methanol, iron salts
manifestations of metabolic acidosis
deep/rapid respiration, acetone breath, decreased LOC, disorientation, coma, ventricular arrhythmia
ventricular arrhythmia occurs with metabolic acidosis because:
electrical conduction and contractility are affected
for metabolic imbalance, compensation and correction must always
employ a respiratory solution
compensation for metabolic acidosis
combine excess acid with available body buffers, increased respiratory rate and depth to decrease PaCO2
as CO2 is excreted via exhalation,
carbonic acid concentration is decreased and Hydrogen ions are tied to water
correction for metabolic acidosis
repair cause of imbalance, hydrogen excretion and bicarbonate reabsorption
etiology of metabolic alkalosis
excess bicarbonate or loss of non-volatile acid
specific causes of metabolic alkalosis - 4
gastric vomiting, nasogastric suctioning, diuretics that cause hydrogen excretion, ingestion of alkaloids
manifestations of metabolic alkalosis
apathy, confusion, dizziness, parasthesias, shallow breathing, muscle spasm
manifestations of metabolic alkalosis are similar to those of:
compensations for metabolic alkalosis
pair excess bicarbonate with available buffers, decrease rate of respiration to increase CO2
as CO2 accumulates, it will undergo:
hydration to produce carbonic acid, which will then dissociate and release hydrogen ions
two important urine buffers are:
phosphate & ammonia-ammonium
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