Bio 263 Quiz 9 - Acid/Base Disorders

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Bio 263 Quiz 9 - Acid/Base Disorders


 
  
Created Nov 21, 2010
by
ssarni

 

 
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1

Types of acid/base imbalances

 

acidosis and alkalosis – both metabolic & respiratory

2

definition of metabolic imbalance

 

change in amount of fixed acids or in bicarbonate levels

3

examples of fixed acids


 

lactic acid, hydrochloric acid, ketoacids

4

the volatile acid in the body is

 

carbonic acid


5

carbonic acid is created through:

 

the hydrolysis of carbon dioxide, aka CO2 and water

6

carbonic acid dissociates into:

 

hydrogen and bicarbonate ions

7

carbonic acid's concentration can be altered via

 

respiration


8

for every 20 carbonic acid molecules formed, the body saves:

 

20 bicarbonate ions and 1 hydrogen ion; kidney excretes the...

9

fixed acids are termed fixed because:

 

they cannot be eliminated by changing respiration

10

in metabolic acidosis, what happens:

 

pH decreases. Either acid increases or bicarbonate decreases.

11

In metabolic alkalosis, what happens:

 

pH increases. Either acid decreases or bicarbonate increases.

12

What does PaCO2 stand for?


 

Partial concentration/pressure of CO2 in arterial blood

13

in respiratory imbalance:


 

change in PacCO2


14

cause of respiratory acidosis:

 

accumulation of carbonic acid due to too much CO2

15

In respiratory acidosis, what happens:

 

CO2 undergoes hydration; hydrogen is released from carbonic...

16

any condition causing _____ will cause respiratory acidosis

 

hypoventilation


17

as CO2 is retained, it will undergo ______ to form ______....

 

hydration; carbonic acid.


18

As carbonic acid is dissociated, ________ are released.

 

Hydrogen ions


19

causes of respiratory acidosis – 4

 

obstructive lung disease, neuromuscular weakness, damage...

20

respiratory center of the brain:

 

medulla & pons


21

manifestations of respiratory acidosis - 8

 

headache, decreased consciousness, disorientation, coma,...

22

nervous system manifestations of resp acidosis occur because:

 

blood vessels dilate in response

23

ventricular arrhythmia occurs with resp acidosis because:

 

electrical conduction and contractility are affected

24

pulmonary hypertension with resp acidosis occurs because:

 

as ventilation decreases, capillary restriction increases

25

cause of respiratory alkalosis:

 

loss of carbonic acid during hyperventilation causes excretion...

26

in respiratory alkalosis, what happens:

 

free hydrogen will be tied up with water; pH increases

27

causes of respiratory alkalosis/hyperventilation - 5

 

anxiety, hypoxia, CNS disorders, pregnancy, fever

28

respiratory and metabolic alkalosis causes

 

hypokalemia & hypocalcemia and vice versa

29

manifestations of respiratory alkalosis - 9

 

anxiety, dizziness, confusion, loss of consciousness, coma,...

30

hypocalcemia occurs in alkalosis because:

 

calcium takes the place of hydrogen ions

31

for a respiratory problem, compensation and correction must:

 

employ a metabolic solution

32

compensation for respiratory acidosis

 

combine excess acid with available body buffers; excretion...

33

compensation for respiratory alkalosis

 

combine excess base with available body buffers; hydrogen...

34

general etiology of metabolic acidosis

 

loss of bicarbonate ion or accumulation of non-volatile acid

35

specific causes of metabolic acidosis - 7

 

renal failure, diabetic ketoacidosis, decompensated shock...

36

renal failure causes acidosis because:

 

normal secretion of hydrogen and reabsorption of bicarbonate...

37

poisons that cause acidosis: 4

 

antifreeze, aspirin, methanol, iron salts

38

manifestations of metabolic acidosis

 

deep/rapid respiration, acetone breath, decreased LOC, disorientation,...

39

ventricular arrhythmia occurs with metabolic acidosis because:

 

electrical conduction and contractility are affected

40

for metabolic imbalance, compensation and correction must...

 

employ a respiratory solution

41

compensation for metabolic acidosis

 

combine excess acid with available body buffers, increased...

42

as CO2 is excreted via exhalation,

 

carbonic acid concentration is decreased and Hydrogen ions...

43

correction for metabolic acidosis

 

repair cause of imbalance, hydrogen excretion and bicarbonate...

44

etiology of metabolic alkalosis

 

excess bicarbonate or loss of non-volatile acid

45

specific causes of metabolic alkalosis - 4

 

gastric vomiting, nasogastric suctioning, diuretics that...

46

manifestations of metabolic alkalosis

 

apathy, confusion, dizziness, parasthesias, shallow breathing,...

47

manifestations of metabolic alkalosis are similar to those...

 

hypokalemia


48

compensations for metabolic alkalosis

 

pair excess bicarbonate with available buffers, decrease...

49

as CO2 accumulates, it will undergo:

 

hydration to produce carbonic acid, which will then dissociate...

50

two important urine buffers are:

 

phosphate & ammonia-ammonium

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