Behaviour Modification Applications

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Exam Questions Behaviour Modification


 
  
Created Apr 8, 2011
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umyurkid

 

 
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1
Chapter 16 - 1- Define stimulus generalization and give an example that is not in this chapter...
 
Stimulus generlization is the procedure of reinforcing a repsonse in the presence of a...
2
Unit 16 2) Explain the difference between stimulus generalization and stimulus discrimination....
 
Stimulus generalization refers to the transfer, or reinforcing a response when another...
3
Chapter 16 - #4 What is a primary distinction between stimulus generalization involving...
 
Common-class: more unlearned; same object but different form; common characteristics Equivalence...
4
Chapter 16 – 5. Define or describe unlearned response generalization due...
 
The more physically similar two responses are, the more unlearned response generalization...
5
 Chapter 16, question 11Briefly list four tactics for programming operant stimulus...
 
1. Train in the target situation.
 Make the final stages of the training situation...
6
Chapter 16 Question 15 Q: Describe the generalization strategy referred to as general...
 
A: General case programming is a variation of training sufficient stimulus exemplars....
7
Chapter 16, Question 16
Briefly list three tactics for programming operant response generalization. Describe...
 
1. Programming operant response generalization -
Train sufficient response exemplars...
8
Chapter 16 19) Briefly describe four tactics for programming operant behaviour maintenance....
 
1) Behaviour trapping is a method for programming operant behaviour maintenance in which...
9
Chapter 16 #21:Give two examples of pitfall type 1 involving stimulus generalization,...
 
: An example of stimulus generalization of a desirable behaviour to an inappropriate situation...
10
Chapter 17 Question 1 Define rule and give an example that is not in...
 
A rule describes a situation in which a behavior will lead to a consequence. Example: ...
11
chapter 17, question 5 : Define contingency shaped behaviour and give an example
 
Behaviour that develops because of its immediate consequences is called contingency –shaped...
12
Chapter 17 Question 14 In a couple of sentences, distinguish between rules that...
 
Rules that describe a behaviour specially is more likely to be followed than a rule that...
13
Chapter 17 Question 17

Briefly list six of the eight conditions...
 
1. Specific Goals are more effective than vague goals: Rather than a goal of having a...
14
CHAPTER 17 18. What is a mastery criterion? Describe an example that is not in this...
 
A mastery criterion is a specific guideline for performing a skill, so that when the guideline...
15
CHAPTER 18 2. List four strategies that you might follow to influence the effectiveness...
 
-       Arrange for peers to be models -       Arrange...
16
Chapter 18  4. What does symbolic modeling mean?  Describe how this might...
 
Modeling is a procedure that uses an individual to demonstrate a given behaviour to another...
17
Chapter 18 Question 10 - what is generalized imitation, describe and example.
 
10. “Generalized imitation: an individual after learning to imitate a number of behaviours, learns...
18
Chapter 18 – question 12 12.) Describe each of the four proposed categories...
 
 Categories of Situational Inducement: o        Rearranging...
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Chapter 18 8.  What does the term physical guidance mean?  How does it...
 
Physical guidance is the application of physical contact to induce an individual to go...
20
Chapter 17, #6 - Define rule governed behaviour and give an example
 
Rule governed behaviour is behaviour that is controlled by the statement of a rule.
If everyone...
21
Chapter 17, Question 21.  What do the authors mean by commitment in the context of goal...
 
By commitment, we mean statements or actions by the learner indicating that the goal is...
22
Chapter 19, Question 1: How do many people who are not behaviourists or behaviour modifiers conceptualize...
 
People who are not behaviourists or behaviour modifiers often conceptualize motivation...
23
Chapter 19 – Question #2

What is the conceptual problem with...
 
The conceptual problem with the traditional view of motivation is that it is believed that...
24
Chapter 19 3. Q) Describe three practical problems with conceptualizing motivation...
 
a)      First, the suggestion that the causes of behaviour are...
25
Chapter 19 Question #5. Define motivating operation. Describe an example that illustrates...
 
Motivating operation (MO) is an event or operation that: temporarily alters the effectiveness...
26
Unit 19 12) Define Echoic, and describe and example that is not in this book.
 
Echoic is a vocal imitative response that is developed and maintinaed by social reinforcement....
27
Chapter 19 – 14. Define mand, and describe an example that is not in the...
 
A mand is a verbal response that is under the control of a motivating operation and is...
28
Chapter 19 Question 13 - Define tact and describe an example that is not in this book.
 
A tact is a naming response that is developed and maintained by social reinforcement . If an...
29
Chapter 20 Question 2 Define behavioural assessment
 
Behavioural assessment involves the collection and analysis of information and data in...
30
Chapter 20  Question 3 Q: List the four phases of a behaviour modification program.
 
A: The four phases of a behaviour modification program are the screening phase, the pre-program...
31
chapter 20 question 5: What two things typically occur during the assessment phase of a behaviour...
 
During the assessment phase the behavior modifier assesses the target behavior to determine...
32
Chapter 20 7) What is the purpose of the follow-up phase of a behaviour modification...
 
“to determine whether the improvements achieved during treatment are maintained after the...
33
Chapter 20 Question 12 List the five main types of indirect assessment procedures.
 
1.          interviews with the client and...
34
Chapter 20 Qustion 9 Briefly distinguish between direct and indirect assessment procedures.
 
Direct Assessment procedures are judgments based on information about a behavior by directly observing...
35
Chapter 20Question 21:  How does a behavioural approach differ from a traditional approach...
 
Behavioural approach - Performance on a checklist is a sample of a persons response to specific...
36
  Chapter 20 Question 22 – Describe two differences in the goals of a behavioral...
 
Behavioural approach – 1) To identify behavioural excesses or deficits 2) to idenfity...
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Chapter 20 #23 Describe a difference between the method of a behavioural approach compared...
 
A difference between the behavioural approach and the traditional approach to assessment...
38
Chapter 21 question 10 What is another word for the intensity of the response? Describe...
 
Another word for intensity of a behaviour is magnitude or force. An example of a situation...
39
CHAPTER 21 12. Name the six levels that the ABLA assesses.
 
Level 1, imitation Level 2, position discrimination Level 3, visual discrimination Level...
40
Chapter 21 Question 15. What do we mean by the latency of a response?Describe an example
 
15.Latency is the amount of time that passes between the presentation of a stimuli and the...
41
  Chapter 21 21.  Define time sampling recording.  Give an example
 
Time sampling recording scores a behavior as occurring or not occurring during very brief...
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CHAPTER 21 17. Define continuous recording. Describe an example that is not in this...
 
Continuous recording is the recording of every instance of a behavior during a designated observation...
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Chapter 21  20.  When would one likely select an interval-recording system...
 
A continuous recording system is the recording of every instance of a behaviour during...
44
Chapter 21, querstion 22 Briefly describe momemtary time-sampling recording
 
22. “Momentary time sampling, a behaviour is recorded as occurring or not occurring...
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Chapter 21  - Question 24  24. In a sentence or two, what do we mean by interobserver...
 
Interobserver reliability is when there are two or more independent observers recording...
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Chapter 22, Question 4: Define dependent variable, and give an example.
 
In research terminology, the measure of behaviour is referred to as the dependent variable....
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Chapter 22 – Question #5 - define independent variable and give an example
 
An independent variable is that variable within an experimental research design that should...
48
 Chapter 22 Question 6. Q) Define internal validity.
 
A) “A study or experiment is said to have internal validity if it convincingly demonstrated...
49
Chapter 22 Question #7.  Define External validity
 
Question #7. External validity is extent to which a finding of a study or experiment...
50
Unit 22 8) With reference to an example, briefly describe the 4 components of the reversal-replication...
 
The reversal-replication design has also been names the ABAB design or the withdrawal...
51
Chapter 22 - #15 With reference to an example, briefly describe a multiple-baseline-across-behaviours...
 
Billy will not do his math problems. He might undergo a multiple-baseline-across-behaviours...
52
Chapter 22–17. With reference to an example, briefly describe a multiple-baseline-across-situations design.p.273
 
It involves establishing baselines for two or more of an individual’s behaviours followed...
53
Chapter 22 Question 19 With reference to an example, briefly describe a multiple-baseline-across-people...
 
A multiple-baeline-across-people design involves establishing baselines for a specific...
54
Chapter 22  Question 21 Q: With reference to an example, Briefly describe the...
 
A: The changing-criterion design is a design in which the control that a treatment exerts...
55
Chapter 22 Question 22. With reference for an example, briefly describe an alternating-treatment...
 
Experimental designs are ideally suited for demonstrating that a particular treatment...
56
Chapter 23 1) A functional assessment of the causes of a problem behaviour involves...
 
1) What are the antecedents of the behaviour? 2) What are the immediate consequences...
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Chapter 23 #2:Briefly describe three ways to discover controlling variables of problem...
 
1.       1)Questionnaire Assessment: Administer a questionnaire...
58
Chapter 23 Question 5 Describe three limitations of functional analyses.
 
1.          Many behaviors occur at frequencies...
59
Chapter 23 Question 6 - What are trhee indicators that a problem behaviour is maintained...
 
a) whether attention reliably follows the behavior B) Whether the individual looks...
60
Chapter 23 Question 12 What is a strong indicator that problem behaviour is...
 
The individual engaged in the behaviour only when certain types of requests are made.   ...
61
Chapter 23 #14 What are the two main indicators that a problem behaviour is a respondent...
 
The two main indicators that a problem behaviour is a respondent behaviour that is elicited...
62
Chapter 24  1. How does a behavior modifier evaluate the importance of a problem?
 
By asking two questions: Will solving the problem lead to less aversiveness or more positive...
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CHAPTER 24 3. How does a behaviour modifier evaluate the ease with which a problem...
 
A behaviour modifier considers whether the problem is to decrease an undesirable behaviour,...
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Chapter 24 Question 9 - You are about to design a treatment program. After defining...
 
9. Before you design your behaviour modification program the five questions that must be answered are:...
65
CHAPTER 24  10. If you are thinking of capitalizing on antecedent control, what...
 
            Can you use: -       Rules -       Goals -       Modeling -       Physical...
66
Chapter 24  15.  What is a behavioral contract? (Answer page 301)
 
A behavioural contract is a written agreement that provides a clear statement of what...
67
Chapter 24 16.  What is a treatment contract and what should it clearly outline?
 
A treatment contract is a written agreement between the client and the behavior modifier.  It...
68
Chapter 25 Question 1 - What are tokens?
 
 
1.       “Tokens are reinforcers that...
69
Chapter 25.
2.) What is a token economy?         ...
 
A token economy is a program in which a group of individuals can earn tokens for a...
70
Chapter 25, Question 4: List at least five settings in which token economies have...
 
Token economies have been used in psychiatric wards, institutions and classrooms for persons...
71
Chapter 25 – Question #5
List at least Five behaviours that token economies have been...
 
Five behaviours that token economies have been designed to develop are: control children’s...
72
Chapter 25       7.      Q) List...
 
     a)      Deciding on target behaviours....
73
Chapter 25 Question #12. What do you think are some advantages in having members of...
 
Some advantages in having members of the token economy themselves function as the main...
74
Unit 25 22) What is one precaution to help ensure high ethical standards for a token...
 
One precaution to help ensure high ethical standards for a token economy is to make the...
75
Chapter 26 - #1 What do people seem to mean when they talk about will power? Is willpower...
 
They describe willpower as some magical force within us that is responsible for overcoming...
76
26 – 11. How does this book define commitment? Pg. 324
 
Commitment to change refers to your statements or actions that indicate that it is important...
77
Chapter 26 Question 12 Describe five steps that you could take to strengthen and maintain...
 
1. List all the benefits for changing your behaviour. Write them out and post them in...
78
Chapter 26  Question 14 Q: Describe an example that illustrates how recording...
 
A: Recording data and graphing it can bring about improvements in a target behaviour...
79
Chapter 26, Question 16
16. List seven major classes of antecedents that you might consider...
 
1.Instructions 2. Modeling 3. Physical Guidance 4. Our Immediate Surroundings 5. Other...
80
Chapter 26 18) Define mastery criterion, and describe an example that is not in the...
 
Mastery criterion is “performance requirements for practicing a skill so that if the...
81
Chapter 26 Question 22 Describe 3 different ways of arranging for reinforcers to be...
 
1. By asking others to manage reinforcers for you is an effective way to receive reinforcers. ...
82
Chapter 26 Question 27        Briefly describe two possible...
 
1.          Failure to incorporate everyday...
83
Chapter 27   Question 1 – What are cognitive processes?
 
Cognitive processes refer to covert verbalization and/or imagery that are frequently called...
84
Chapter 27 question 2 For what do the letters ABCT stand for?
 
Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Therapies  
85
Chapter 27 #6  - Briefly, what is cognitive restructuring?  
 
Cognitive restructuring is referred to as strategies for recognizing maladaptive thinking...
86
Chapter 27, Question 10 – Describe three major components of Beck’s cognitive therapy.
 
10. First, clients identify the dysfunctional thoughts and maladaptive assumptions that...
87
CHAPTER 27 13. Briefly list five steps of self-instructional training that Meichenbaum...
 
      1. Adult demonstrates self-instructing.      ...
88
CHAPTER 27  24. What is one explanation of why both self-instruction and problem-solving...
 
            These approaches teach...
89
Chapter 28 1. What are empirically supported therapies (ESTs)? (Answer page 356)
 
ESTs are therapies that have proved to be effective in scientifically conducted trials. ...
90
Chapter 28 2.  Why do empirically supported therapies (EST’s) often turn out...
 
EST’s often turn out to be behavioral or cognitive-behavioral therapies because the...
91
Chapter 28 Question 3 – What is a specific phobia?
 
3.  “An intense, irrational, incapacitating fear of a stimulus class is called...
92
Chapter 28 5. What is a fear hierarchy?  
 
A fear hierarchy is a list of fear eliciting stimuli arranged in order from the least...
93
Chapter 28, Question 6: Define systematic desensitization.
 
Systematic desensitization is a procedure for overcoming a phobia by having a client in...
94
Chapter 28 – Question #7 – Using an example briefly describe three phases of systematic...
 
Three phases of systematic desensitization of a specific phobia.  For example, the...
95
Chapter 28 9. Q) Briefly describe an example of how in vivo flooding might be used...
 
A) The following is an example of how in vivo flooding might be used to treat a specific...
96
Unit 28 10) Briefly describe an example of how participant modeling might be used to...
 
Participant modeling is a method for decreasing fear in which a client imitates another...
97
Chapter 28 - #23 Briefly describe four types of eating disorders. With which has behaviour...
 
1.       Anorexia nervosa – having a negative look on...
98
28 – 24. List and briefly describe four behavioural strategies for treating obesity....
 
a)self-monitoring, including daily records of foods eaten and their caloric...
99
Chapter 29  Question 2 Q: What are two other names for Pavlovian conditioning?
 
A: Two other names for Pavlovian conditioning are classical or respondent conditioning....
100
Chapter 29, Question 6
6. What role did Hans Eysenck play in the development of behavior...
 
He was a British psychologist whom was influential in criticizing traditional Freudian psychoanalytic...
101
Chapter 29 7) What is operant conditioning?
 
Operant conditioning is “the process of strengthening a behaviour by reinforcing it...
102
Chapter 29 Question 12 The publications of the early 1960s within the operant orientation...
 
(a) Much of it was done with very resistant populations, such as persons with intellectual disabilities,...
103
Chapter 29, Question 15 – What is another name for operant orientation?
 
Ans 15.The operant orientation is also referred as applied behaviour analysis.  
104
Chapter 29 question 18 Briefly, how did cognitive therapist Ellis and Beck explain...
 
They believed that faulty cognitive processes (faulty thinking_ causes emotional and behavioural problems. ...
105
Chapter 29 question 22 In a sentence for each, distinguish between the terms behaviour...
 
Behaviour therapy today is referred to as the treatment that is used to modify or change...
106
CHAPTER 30 6. State two propositions on which behaviour modification is based.
 
Behaviour modification is based on the assumptions that: (a) behaviour can be controlled...
107
Chapter 30, Question 7 – Why is extreme wariness a healthy reaction to any new development...
 
7. Extreme wariness in reaction to any new development in science and technology is warranted...
108
Chapter 30 8. From a behavioral point of view, what does the term ethics mean? (Answer...
 
From a behavioural point of view the term ethics refers to certain standards of behaviour...
109
Chapter 30 Question 14 Discuss countercontrol. Why is it important?
 
Countercontrol is the reciprocal of control, it is the influence the controlee has on...
110
Chapter 30 18. In a sentence, what should be the characteristics of the intervention...
 
 “behaviour modifiers should use the most effective, empirically validated intervention...
111
Chapter 30, Question 19: Discuss three possible meanings of intrusive and...
 
Three possible meanings of intrusive and restrictive interventions are: 1. Interventions...
112
Chapter 30 – Question #20 – Describe a mechanism to facilitate informed consent.
 
A mechanism to facilitate informed consent is the signing of a treatment contract that...

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