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Behaviour Modification Applications

Exam Questions Behaviour Modification
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Chapter 16 - 1- Define stimulus generalization and give an example that is not in this chapter ***
Stimulus generlization is the procedure of reinforcing a repsonse in the presence of a stimulus or situation, and the effect of the response becoming more probable in the presence...
Unit 16 2) Explain the difference between stimulus generalization and stimulus discrimination. Describe examples illustrating the difference.
Stimulus generalization refers to the transfer, or reinforcing a response when another stimulation/situation and the effect of becoming more likely in its presence. Ex) Child...
Chapter 16 - #4 What is a primary distinction between stimulus generalization involving a common-element stimulus class and stimulus generalization involving an equivalence...
Common-class: more unlearned; same object but different form; common characteristics Equivalence class: more learned; one common element but different items; no common characteristics
Chapter 16 – 5. Define or describe unlearned response generalization due to physical similarity of responses, and give an example.
The more physically similar two responses are, the more unlearned response generalization will occur between them. If you learn a forehand shot in racquetball, chances are ...
 Chapter 16, question 11Briefly list four tactics for programming operant stimulus generalization. Give an example of each.
1. Train in the target situation.  Make the final stages of the training situation as similar to the target situation in as many ways as possible. An example of this could...
Chapter 16 Question 15 Q: Describe the generalization strategy referred to as general case programming. Describe an example.
A: General case programming is a variation of training sufficient stimulus exemplars. This is where the instructor will introduce the range of relevant stimulus in which the...
Chapter 16, Question 16 Briefly list three tactics for programming operant response generalization. Describe an example of each.
1. Programming operant response generalization - Train sufficient response exemplars - a strategy for programming response generalization is similar to training sufficient stimulus...
Chapter 16 19) Briefly describe four tactics for programming operant behaviour maintenance. Give an example of each.
1) Behaviour trapping is a method for programming operant behaviour maintenance in which the natural contingencies of reinforcement are allowed to take effect (p.196). For example, when...
Chapter 16 #21:Give two examples of pitfall type 1 involving stimulus generalization, one of which involves generalization of a desirable behaviour to an innappropriate situation...
: An example of stimulus generalization of a desirable behaviour to an inappropriate situation can often be seen among individuals with developmental disabilities involving greetings and...
Chapter 17 Question 1 Define rule and give an example that is not in this chapter.
A rule describes a situation in which a behavior will lead to a consequence. Example:  If you don’t take your shoes off when you enter the house, you will have to wash...
chapter 17, question 5 : Define contingency shaped behaviour and give an example
Behaviour that develops because of its immediate consequences is called contingency –shaped behaviour. For example operating the Blu-ray Disc Player by just pushing the buttons...
Chapter 17 Question 14 In a couple of sentences, distinguish between rules that are often effective versus rules that are often weak or ineffective in controlling...
Rules that describe a behaviour specially is more likely to be followed than a rule that describes a vague behaviour.  A rule that describes specific circumstances in...
Chapter 17 Question 17 Briefly list six of the eight conditions that summarize effective versus inneffective goal setting as a behaviour modification strategy.
1. Specific Goals are more effective than vague goals: Rather than a goal of having a better relationship, a couple might agree to spend half an hour of quantity time together...
CHAPTER 17 18. What is a mastery criterion? Describe an example that is not in this chapter.
A mastery criterion is a specific guideline for performing a skill, so that when the guideline is met, the skill is likely to be mastered. In other words, when an individual has...
CHAPTER 18 2. List four strategies that you might follow to influence the effectiveness of modeling as a behavior modification technique.
-       Arrange for peers to be models -       Arrange for the modeled behaviour to be seen to be effective -       Use...
Chapter 18  4. What does symbolic modeling mean?  Describe how this might explain how a city-dwelling child might learn to fear snakes.
Modeling is a procedure that uses an individual to demonstrate a given behaviour to another individual to try to get that individual to take part in a similar behaviour.   A...
Chapter 18 Question 10 - what is generalized imitation, describe and example.
10. “Generalized imitation: an individual after learning to imitate a number of behaviours, learns to imitate a new response on the first trial without reinforcement. Example:...
Chapter 18 – question 12 12.) Describe each of the four proposed categories of situational inducement.
 Categories of Situational Inducement: o        Rearranging surroundings to create an environment that promotes the behaviour through...
Chapter 18 8.  What does the term physical guidance mean?  How does it differ from gestural prompting?
Physical guidance is the application of physical contact to induce an individual to go through the motions of a desired behavior.  Gestural prompting are certain motions...
Chapter 17, #6 - Define rule governed behaviour and give an example
Rule governed behaviour is behaviour that is controlled by the statement of a rule.If everyone listens to the coach carefully and does not whisper while he is talking there will be...
Chapter 17, Question 21.  What do the authors mean by commitment in the context of goal setting?
By commitment, we mean statements or actions by the learner indicating that the goal is important, the learner will work toward it and the learner recognizes the benefits of doing...
Chapter 19, Question 1: How do many people who are not behaviourists or behaviour modifiers conceptualize motivation? Illustrate with an example.
People who are not behaviourists or behaviour modifiers often conceptualize motivation as some “thing” within us that causes our actions. Claiming that “Howard is a good worker...
Chapter 19 – Question #2 What is the conceptual problem with the traditional view of motivation?
The conceptual problem with the traditional view of motivation is that it is believed that motivation is something that we either have or don’t have.  For example, a gymnast...
Chapter 19 3. Q) Describe three practical problems with conceptualizing motivation as an internal cause of behaviour
a)      First, the suggestion that the causes of behaviour are inside of us rather than in the environment might influence some to ignore the principles...
Chapter 19 Question #5. Define motivating operation. Describe an example that illustrates both aspects of the definition.
Motivating operation (MO) is an event or operation that: temporarily alters the effectiveness of a reinforcer or punisher and influences behaviour that normally leads to that...
Unit 19 12) Define Echoic, and describe and example that is not in this book.
Echoic is a vocal imitative response that is developed and maintinaed by social reinforcement. If a parent says " say garbage" and the child says " garbage" then receives praise,...
Chapter 19 – 14. Define mand, and describe an example that is not in the book.
A mand is a verbal response that is under the control of a motivating operation and is reinforced b y the corresponding reinforcer or removal of the corresponding aversive stimulus....
Chapter 19 Question 13 - Define tact and describe an example that is not in this book.
A tact is a naming response that is developed and maintained by social reinforcement . If an instructor asks how many hours should be spent studying and the students respond 2, then...
Chapter 20 Question 2 Define behavioural assessment
Behavioural assessment involves the collection and analysis of information and data in order to a) identify and describe target behaviour; b) identify possible causes of the behaviour; c)...
Chapter 20  Question 3 Q: List the four phases of a behaviour modification program.
A: The four phases of a behaviour modification program are the screening phase, the pre-program assessment phase, the treatment phase, and the follow-up phase
chapter 20 question 5: What two things typically occur during the assessment phase of a behaviour modification program?
During the assessment phase the behavior modifier assesses the target behavior to determine its level prior to the introduction of the program or tteatment Also they analyze the...
Chapter 20 7) What is the purpose of the follow-up phase of a behaviour modification program?***
“to determine whether the improvements achieved during treatment are maintained after the program’s termination.”Observations in the natural environment
Chapter 20 Question 12 List the five main types of indirect assessment procedures.
1.          interviews with the client and significant others 2.         questionnaires 3.        ...
Chapter 20 Qustion 9 Briefly distinguish between direct and indirect assessment procedures.
Direct Assessment procedures are judgments based on information about a behavior by directly observing it whereas Indirect Assessment procedures are judgments based on information...
Chapter 20Question 21:  How does a behavioural approach differ from a traditional approach to assessment in terms of a basic assumption about performance on a test or checklist***
Behavioural approach - Performance on a checklist is a sample of a persons response to specific stimuliPsychodiagnostic approach - Test performacne is viewed as a sign of an enxuring...
  Chapter 20 Question 22 – Describe two differences in the goals of a behavioral approach to assessment compared to a traditional approach?
Behavioural approach – 1) To identify behavioural excesses or deficits 2) to idenfity environmental causes of current problem behaviours Traditional approach – 1) to diagnose...
Chapter 20 #23 Describe a difference between the method of a behavioural approach compared to a traditional approach to assessment.
A difference between the behavioural approach and the traditional approach to assessment is that in a behavioural approach the client is assessed through direct observation of...
Chapter 21 question 10 What is another word for the intensity of the response? Describe an example in which it would be important to measure the intensity of the behaviour?
Another word for intensity of a behaviour is magnitude or force. An example of a situation where it would be Important to measure the intensity of the behaviour could be a baseball...
CHAPTER 21 12. Name the six levels that the ABLA assesses.
Level 1, imitation Level 2, position discrimination Level 3, visual discrimination Level 4, visual match-to-sample Level 5, auditory discrimination Level 6, auditory-visual...
Chapter 21 Question 15. What do we mean by the latency of a response?Describe an example
15.Latency is the amount of time that passes between the presentation of a stimuli and the onset of a specific behaviour. My co-worker complains endlessly so much so that I escape...
  Chapter 21 21.  Define time sampling recording.  Give an example
Time sampling recording scores a behavior as occurring or not occurring during very brief observation intervals that are separated from each other by a much longer period of time. ...
CHAPTER 21 17. Define continuous recording. Describe an example that is not in this chapter.
Continuous recording is the recording of every instance of a behavior during a designated observation period. A continuous recording system is commonly used when successive responses...
Chapter 21  20.  When would one likely select an interval-recording system over a continuous recording system?
A continuous recording system is the recording of every instance of a behaviour during a designated observation period.  It is commonly used when successive responses are...
Chapter 21, querstion 22 Briefly describe momemtary time-sampling recording
22. “Momentary time sampling, a behaviour is recorded as occurring or not occurring at specific points in time, such as every hour on the hour rather than during specific brief...
Chapter 21  - Question 24  24. In a sentence or two, what do we mean by interobserver reliability? (Describe in words. Don’t just give the procedures for calculating...
Interobserver reliability is when there are two or more independent observers recording observations of the same behaviour of the same individual during the same session. They...
Chapter 22, Question 4: Define dependent variable, and give an example.
In research terminology, the measure of behaviour is referred to as the dependent variable. In the example of Kelly, who underwent a treatment program to improve her frequency...
Chapter 22 – Question #5 - define independent variable and give an example
An independent variable is that variable within an experimental research design that should have an effect on the dependent variable.  Usually the independent variable is...
 Chapter 22 Question 6. Q) Define internal validity.
A) “A study or experiment is said to have internal validity if it convincingly demonstrated that the independent variable caused the observed change in the dependent variable.”
Chapter 22 Question #7.  Define External validity
Question #7. External validity is extent to which a finding of a study or experiment can be generalized to other behaviours, individuals, settings and treatments
Unit 22 8) With reference to an example, briefly describe the 4 components of the reversal-replication design. What is another name for this design?
The reversal-replication design has also been names the ABAB design or the withdrawal design.  The first component is the baseline phase where a child’s ability to do math...
Chapter 22 - #15 With reference to an example, briefly describe a multiple-baseline-across-behaviours design.
Billy will not do his math problems. He might undergo a multiple-baseline-across-behaviours design. First the teacher would create a baseline for two or more behaviours concurrently. Teacher...
Chapter 22–17. With reference to an example, briefly describe a multiple-baseline-across-situations design.p.273
It involves establishing baselines for two or more of an individual’s behaviours followed by introducing the treatment sequentially across those behaviours. For a teacher that...
Chapter 22 Question 19 With reference to an example, briefly describe a multiple-baseline-across-people design.
A multiple-baeline-across-people design involves establishing baselines for a specific behaviour across two or more people concurrently followed by the introduction o the treatment...
Chapter 22  Question 21 Q: With reference to an example, Briefly describe the changing-criterion design.
A: The changing-criterion design is a design in which the control that a treatment exerts on an individuals behaviour is evaluated by introducing successive changes in the behavioural...
Chapter 22 Question 22. With reference for an example, briefly describe an alternating-treatment design. What is another name for this design? Explain when and why that name...
Experimental designs are ideally suited for demonstrating that a particular treatment need responsible for a specific change in behavior. Nonetheless of you wanted to compare...
Chapter 23 1) A functional assessment of the causes of a problem behaviour involves asking what two questions?
1) What are the antecedents of the behaviour? 2) What are the immediate consequences of the behaviour?
Chapter 23 #2:Briefly describe three ways to discover controlling variables of problem behaviour
1.       1)Questionnaire Assessment: Administer a questionnaire with a series of relevant questions that people familiar with the client are asked....
Chapter 23 Question 5 Describe three limitations of functional analyses.
1.          Many behaviors occur at frequencies of less than one per day so this form of analysis would take     a great...
Chapter 23 Question 6 - What are trhee indicators that a problem behaviour is maintained by the social attentio taht follows it
a) whether attention reliably follows the behavior B) Whether the individual looks at or approaches a caregiver just before engaging in the behaviour. C) Whether the...
Chapter 23 Question 12 What is a strong indicator that problem behaviour is being maintained as a way of escaping from demands?  Give and example illustrating...
The individual engaged in the behaviour only when certain types of requests are made.    For example, when requested to answer difficult questions, some children...
Chapter 23 #14 What are the two main indicators that a problem behaviour is a respondent behaviour that is elicited by prior stimuli(versus operant behaviour being maintained...
The two main indicators that a problem behaviour is a respondent behaviour that is elicited by a prior stimuli are that the problem behaviour consistently occurs in a certain...
Chapter 24  1. How does a behavior modifier evaluate the importance of a problem?
By asking two questions: Will solving the problem lead to less aversiveness or more positive reinforcement for the clients or others? And will solving the problem be likely to...
CHAPTER 24 3. How does a behaviour modifier evaluate the ease with which a problem might be solved?
A behaviour modifier considers whether the problem is to decrease an undesirable behaviour, and if the behaviour has been occurring for a short time, under narrow stimulus, and...
Chapter 24 Question 9 - You are about to design a treatment program. After defining the target behavioura nd identifying its desired level of occurrence and stimulus control,...
9. Before you design your behaviour modification program the five questions that must be answered are: 1. Is your description exacting enough? 2. How did you select the goal and is...
CHAPTER 24  10. If you are thinking of capitalizing on antecedent control, what six categories should you consider?
            Can you use: -       Rules -       Goals -       Modeling -       Physical...
Chapter 24  15.  What is a behavioral contract? (Answer page 301)
A behavioural contract is a written agreement that provides a clear statement of what behaviours of what individuals will produce what reinforcers and who will deliver those reinforcers. ...
Chapter 24 16.  What is a treatment contract and what should it clearly outline?
A treatment contract is a written agreement between the client and the behavior modifier.  It clearly outlines the objectives and methods of treatment, the framework of...
Chapter 25 Question 1 - What are tokens?
  1.       “Tokens are reinforcers that can be accumulated and exchanged for goods and services. “
Chapter 25. 2.) What is a token economy?         
A token economy is a program in which a group of individuals can earn tokens for a variety of desirable behaviours, and can exchange tokens earned for backup reinforcers.
Chapter 25, Question 4: List at least five settings in which token economies have been used.
Token economies have been used in psychiatric wards, institutions and classrooms for persons with developmental disabilities, classrooms for children and teenagers with attention-...
Chapter 25 – Question #5 List at least Five behaviours that token economies have been designed to develop
Five behaviours that token economies have been designed to develop are: control children’s behaviour, treat marital discord, increase safety behaviour, decrease absenteeism...
Chapter 25       7.      Q) List and briefly describe six initial steps involved in setting up a token economy.
     a)      Deciding on target behaviours. This involves deciding on and clearly defining the target behaviours “so that the students...
Chapter 25 Question #12. What do you think are some advantages in having members of the token economy themselves function as the main source of help?
Some advantages in having members of the token economy themselves function as the main source of help are learning responsiblitiy and learning how to function effectively without...
Unit 25 22) What is one precaution to help ensure high ethical standards for a token economy?
One precaution to help ensure high ethical standards for a token economy is to make the system completely open to public scrutiny, this provides a sense of accountability to those...
Chapter 26 - #1 What do people seem to mean when they talk about will power? Is willpower a useful concept? Why or why not?
They describe willpower as some magical force within us that is responsible for overcoming problems. It is not a useful concept to use because people fail to describe how to obtain willpower....
26 – 11. How does this book define commitment? Pg. 324
Commitment to change refers to your statements or actions that indicate that it is important to change your behaviour, that you recognize the benefits of doing so, and that you...
Chapter 26 Question 12 Describe five steps that you could take to strengthen and maintain your commitment to a program of self control
1. List all the benefits for changing your behaviour. Write them out and post them in a conspicuous space. 2. Make your commitment to change public. Increasing the number of...
Chapter 26  Question 14 Q: Describe an example that illustrates how recording and graphing of a problem behaviour was all that was needed to bring about improvement....
A: Recording data and graphing it can bring about improvements in a target behaviour on its own because seeing the data may act as reinforcement. For example a smoker may want...
Chapter 26, Question 16 16. List seven major classes of antecedents that you might consider when planning how to mamage the situation in a self control program (p 327).
1.Instructions 2. Modeling 3. Physical Guidance 4. Our Immediate Surroundings 5. Other People 6. The time of Day 7. Motivating Operations
Chapter 26 18) Define mastery criterion, and describe an example that is not in the text.
Mastery criterion is “performance requirements for practicing a skill so that if the criteria are met, the behaviour has been learned” (p. 328). For example, hitting three “out-of-the-park”...
Chapter 26 Question 22 Describe 3 different ways of arranging for reinforcers to be received in a self control program in a sentence or two for each.***
1. By asking others to manage reinforcers for you is an effective way to receive reinforcers.  In an example, Mary decided to start a jogging program where she would get...
Chapter 26 Question 27        Briefly describe two possible causes of relapse in consequences, and indicate how each might be handled.
1.          Failure to incorporate everyday rewards into your program may cause decreased enthusiasm as      the extra...
Chapter 27   Question 1 – What are cognitive processes?
Cognitive processes refer to covert verbalization and/or imagery that are frequently called believing, thinking, expecting or perceiving.  
Chapter 27 question 2 For what do the letters ABCT stand for?
Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Therapies  
Chapter 27 #6  - Briefly, what is cognitive restructuring?  
Cognitive restructuring is referred to as strategies for recognizing maladaptive thinking and replacing it with adaptive thinking. It deals mainly with the clients verbal behaviour...
Chapter 27, Question 10 – Describe three major components of Beck’s cognitive therapy.
10. First, clients identify the dysfunctional thoughts and maladaptive assumptions that might be causing debilitating emotions. This is usually accomplished a series of visualizations...
CHAPTER 27 13. Briefly list five steps of self-instructional training that Meichenbaum and others used with children.
      1. Adult demonstrates self-instructing.       2. Child performs while adult verbalizes.      ...
CHAPTER 27  24. What is one explanation of why both self-instruction and problem-solving training might be effective?
            These approaches teach rule-governed behaviour that leads to effective consequences. For example, Teaching a...
Chapter 28 1. What are empirically supported therapies (ESTs)? (Answer page 356)
ESTs are therapies that have proved to be effective in scientifically conducted trials.  They are behavioural or cognitive behavioural treatments, primarily because the behavioural...
Chapter 28 2.  Why do empirically supported therapies (EST’s) often turn out to be behavioral or cognitive-behavioral therapies?
EST’s often turn out to be behavioral or cognitive-behavioral therapies because the behavioral approach emphasizes basing treatments on well-establishing principles, measuring...
Chapter 28 Question 3 – What is a specific phobia?
3.  “An intense, irrational, incapacitating fear of a stimulus class is called a specific phobia.”
Chapter 28 5. What is a fear hierarchy?  
A fear hierarchy is a list of fear eliciting stimuli arranged in order from the least to the most fear eliciting. It is used in systematic desensitization which is a procedure...
Chapter 28, Question 6: Define systematic desensitization.
Systematic desensitization is a procedure for overcoming a phobia by having a client in a relaxed state successively imagine the items in a fear hierarchy (a list of fear- eliciting stimuli...
Chapter 28 – Question #7 – Using an example briefly describe three phases of systematic desensitization to a specific phobia.
Three phases of systematic desensitization of a specific phobia.  For example, the client may have social phobia. 1 – a fear hierarchy is constructed with around...
Chapter 28 9. Q) Briefly describe an example of how in vivo flooding might be used to treat a specific phobia.
A) The following is an example of how in vivo flooding might be used to treat a specific phobia. Let’s say an individual has an intense fear of flying and cannot even think...
Unit 28 10) Briefly describe an example of how participant modeling might be used to treat a specific phobia.
Participant modeling is a method for decreasing fear in which a client imitates another individual approaching  a feared object. If a client has a fear of dogs, the client...
Chapter 28 - #23 Briefly describe four types of eating disorders. With which has behaviour therapy been most effective?
1.       Anorexia nervosa – having a negative look on body image which leads to reduced eating habits 2.      Bulimia nervosa...
28 – 24. List and briefly describe four behavioural strategies for treating obesity. Pg. 366
a)self-monitoring, including daily records of foods eaten and their caloric contents and body weight, b) stimulus control, such as restricting...
Chapter 29  Question 2 Q: What are two other names for Pavlovian conditioning?
A: Two other names for Pavlovian conditioning are classical or respondent conditioning.
Chapter 29, Question 6 6. What role did Hans Eysenck play in the development of behavior therapy in the 1950s?
He was a British psychologist whom was influential in criticizing traditional Freudian psychoanalytic treatment and in advocating learning-theory or conditioning procedures as alternatives...
Chapter 29 7) What is operant conditioning?
Operant conditioning is “the process of strengthening a behaviour by reinforcing it or weakening it by punishing it” (p.401).
Chapter 29 Question 12 The publications of the early 1960s within the operant orientation seem to have been characterized by two features. What were they?
(a) Much of it was done with very resistant populations, such as persons with intellectual disabilities, children with autism, and severely regressed psychiatric patients who...
Chapter 29, Question 15 – What is another name for operant orientation?
Ans 15.The operant orientation is also referred as applied behaviour analysis.  
Chapter 29 question 18 Briefly, how did cognitive therapist Ellis and Beck explain emotional problems, and how di they prose to treat them?
They believed that faulty cognitive processes (faulty thinking_ causes emotional and behavioural problems.  They developed approaches to therapy that focused on helping...
Chapter 29 question 22 In a sentence for each, distinguish between the terms behaviour therapy, applied behaviour analysis and behaviour modification as they tend to be used...
Behaviour therapy today is referred to as the treatment that is used to modify or change a particular behaviour in an experimental or a clinical setting. Applied behaviour analysis...
CHAPTER 30 6. State two propositions on which behaviour modification is based.
Behaviour modification is based on the assumptions that: (a) behaviour can be controlled and (b) it is desirable to do so to achieve certain objectives.
Chapter 30, Question 7 – Why is extreme wariness a healthy reaction to any new development in science and technology. Discuss an example of this.
7. Extreme wariness in reaction to any new development in science and technology is warranted with any invention one needs to be cautious the change it executes as well as the potential...
Chapter 30 8. From a behavioral point of view, what does the term ethics mean? (Answer page 387)  
From a behavioural point of view the term ethics refers to certain standards of behaviour that a culture developed to promote the survival of that culture.   Ethical...
Chapter 30 Question 14 Discuss countercontrol. Why is it important?
Countercontrol is the reciprocal of control, it is the influence the controlee has on the controller by virtue of access to suitable reinforcers. It is used to ensure that contingencies...
Chapter 30 18. In a sentence, what should be the characteristics of the intervention methods used by behaviour modifiers?
 “behaviour modifiers should use the most effective, empirically validated intervention methods with the least discomfort, and fewest negative side effects.”
Chapter 30, Question 19: Discuss three possible meanings of intrusive and restrictive interventions.
Three possible meanings of intrusive and restrictive interventions are: 1. Interventions based on positive reinforcement are generally considered to be less intrusive and restrictive...
Chapter 30 – Question #20 – Describe a mechanism to facilitate informed consent.
A mechanism to facilitate informed consent is the signing of a treatment contract that clearly outlines the objectives and methods of treatment, the framework for the service...

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