Basic Sonographic Terminology


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acoustics
 
the science of sound, including its production, propagation and effects
acoustic enhancement
 
an area of increased echo intensity distal to a fluid filled area
acoustic wave
 
a mechanical disturbance which propagates through a continuous medium
acoustic window
 
any medium or structure that transmits sound well
anechoic
 
no internal echoes
artifact
 
part of an ultrasound image that does not accurately represent the underlying anatomy
attenuation
 
progressive weakening of the sound beam as it travels through body tissue
color flow imaging
 
ability to display bood flow in multipe colors depending on the velocity, direction of flow and extent of tubulence
complex
 
a structure that has both fluid filled and solid components
doppler
 
concern s the behavior of high frequency sound waves as they are reflected off moving fluid, usually blood. a waveform image is produced
duplex imaging
 
the simultaneous display of a gray scale image and the Doppler waveform
echo
 
a recorded acoustic signal
echogenic
 
a region containing a high amount of echoes
frequency
 
number of cycles per second
heterogeneous
 
does not have a uniform texture
homogeneous
 
used in the sense of having a uniform texture
hyperechoic
 
a region containing many echoes, used mainly to describe an area in relation to its surrounding structures
hypoechoic
 
a region that contains only a few echoes, used maily to descrie a area in relation to its surrounding structures
interface
 
surface forming the boundary between different structures
isoechoic
 
of the same echogenicity as a neighboring area, but not necessarily of the same texture
parenchyma
 
a general term for the tissue of an organ
real time imaging
 
type of imaging in which many frames are run together to create a cinematic view of the tissue
rocking
 
holding the transducer in one spot and angling along the curve or rounded protion of the scan head
rotating
 
twisting the transducer in a circular motion while holding it in one place
sector
 
shape of the image on the film, depends on the type of transducer that is used
shadowing
 
failure of the sound beam to pass through an object, causing the absense of echoes posterior
solid
 
defines a mass with no fluid areas
transducer
 
a device capable of convering energy from one form to another
ultrasound
 
sound waves which have a frequency above the audible range of the human ear
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