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Artisan Vocab

Artisan Bread Vocab
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a yeast preferment made as a stiff dough
Biga
- the process by which yeast changes carbohydrates into carbon dioxide gas and alcohol.
Fermentation
A flat Italian bread similar to a thick pizza dough
Foccacia
French country style bread
Pain de champagne
An elastic substance, formed from proteins present in wheat flours, that gives structure and strength to baked goods.
Gluten
bread baker
Boulangerie
A long, rectangular loaf of bread.
Pullman loaf 
a thin yeast starter made with equal parts flour and water, plus commercial yeast
Poolish- 
The process of absorbing water
Hydration
A rich egg bread, often made as a braided loaf
Challah
Various enzymes, found in flour and in diastatic malt, that convert starch into sugar
Diastase
a regional French bread made in the shape of a trellis or ladder
Fougasse
When something is baked directly on the hearth and not in a pan.
Hearth-baked
bread made by a skilled manual worker; usually referring to handmade breads made using traditional methods and with natural ingredients only.
Artisan bread 
refrigerating a yeast dough to slow its fermentation
Retarding
a type of yeast that absorbs water instantly. It can be mixed directly in with the dry ingredients of a recipe. It produces more carbon dioxide gas per yeast cell, so a smaller amount...
Instant yeast 
To change in texture and aroma of baked goods due to the loss of moisture by the starch granules.
Staling
– a chemical reaction that causes the browning of proteins and sugars together when subjected to heat.
Maillard reaction 
An Italian sweet bread made in a large loaf, generally containing dried and candied fruits.
Panettone
the process by which starch granules absorb water and well in size.
Gelatinization
a resting period early in the mixing procedure of yeast doughs during which the flour fully absorbs the water.
Autolyse
the starchy inner portion of grain kernels
Endosperm
fermented dough, used as a starter
Pate fermentee
the interior of a baked item, distinct from the crust
Crumb
- tan colored wheat flour made from the outer portion of the endosperm.
Clear flour
The rapid rise of yeast goods in the oven due to the production and expansion of trapped gases caused by the oven heat
Oven spring
The mineral content of flour; expressed as a percentage of the total weight
Ash
French for a curved, extra-sharp tool for slashing the top of risen dough for decoration and to allow the bread to expand as it bakes. Originally the term for thin metal plates of...
Lame 
the process by which proteins become firm, usually when heated.
Coagulation 
dough leavened by a sourdough starter.
Sourdough


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