ART HISTORY FINAL DEFINITIONS

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ART HISTORY FINAL DEFINITIONS

Terms For Art Test

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Modern
 
modernism is a cultural product of modern culture, urban and industrial orientation
modern
 
up to date, contemporary, transitory
Modernism
 
early 19th century era in which urbanism and industrialism took control of culture
bourgeois
 
relating to the townsman of the social middle class, marked by a tendency toward mediocracy
proletrariat
 
the class of wage owners who make money by manual labor
Chiaroscuro
 
light and shade, disregarding color, interplay of contrasts
camera obscura
 
images of objects that project through a lens onto a surface and are then traced
Daguerrotype
 
single, unique, positive, metal plate, crisp, precise, silvery photography
Calotype
 
multiple images on paper form a negative, hazy impression
pre-Ralphaelite
 
painter dedicated to restoring early Renaissance ideas
optical naturalism
 
seeing what is seen naturally through the eye, not distorted
cropping
 
manipulating something so that a part that you want to be taken out is, angles
pointilism
 
characteristic of post-impressionists, dabbing points to create something that looks blurry up front by from far away makes sense, don't mix colors because eye does that
fauvism
 
characterized by brights and unnatural colors and simple forms, influence expressionists but mostly done by post-impressionists
post-naturalism
 
against natural colors, non-natural beings and colors (Gaugin)
avant-garde
 
any creative group activ in the innovation and application of new concepts and techniques
linear perspective
 
when artists attempt to create depth from something that is flat surfaced
cubist space
 
objects are broken up and reassembled in abstract form instead of depicting it from one point of view
african masks
 
symbolize source of beauty (Picasso)
abstraction
 
taking something and distorting it to be seen from multiple view points
collage
 
taking objects and putting them together to form a collaboration of multiple objects
the futurist Manifesto
 
book, motion ?
sequential photography
 
taking pictures of something and capture the moment for a certain amount of time
skeleton system
 
not putting frame on something to cover the body (Eiffel Tower)
Beaux arts
 
architecture that denotes the academic neoclassical architectural style
neo-gothic
 
House of Parliament, movement emphasizes obscene, mysterious, confusion, symbolic (spiritual)
Usonia
 
work used by FLW to refer to his vision for the landscape of the US.....don't manipulate land, manipulate building
postmodern
 
reaction against principles and practices of established modernism, simplification (POPART)
Armory show
 
the international fair of new art, is the largest contemporary art fair in NY, and one of the largest in the world
readymade
 
something that is already made but made to look as art, anything can be art
photomontage
 
collection of images combining two or more objects
surrealist object
 
use of juxtapositions in order to represent unconscious thoughts and dreams
automatism
 
ex: Miro, an unconscious or involuntary muscular movement caused by spirits, involuntary movements
abstract surrealism
 
Miro, automatism
biomorphic imagery
 
irregular abstract image based on shapes found in nature
Merz
 
a variety of DADA invented in 1920, like collage, it consisted of an arrangement of various materials merged in a work of art
The Eight
 
a group of realist artists who challenged prevailing conventions in order to depict city life
Precisionism
 
an approach through which American artists, focused on industrial and urban subjects in a clearly defined, starkly geometric style
Guernica
 
painting by Picasson, depicting the bombing of Guernica
New Objectivity (German Name)
 
art movement that arose in Germany in the early 1920s as an outgrowth of, and in opposition to, expressionism
Degenerate art
 
English translation of the German entartete Kunst, a term adopted by the Nazi regime to describe virtually all modern art
supremacist
 
art movement focused on fundamental geometric forms
constructivism
 
industrial materials were used to construct nonrepresentational objects
De Stijl
 
"The Style" sought to express a new utopian ideal of spiritual harmony and order, reduction to the essentials of form and color, simplified compositions
regionalism
 
movement, artistic focus was from artists who shunned city life, and rapidly developing technology, to create scenes of rural life
existentialism
 
eixstence preceds essence
new york school
 
imformal group of american painters and poets, abstract expressionist painting
action painting
 
gestural abstraction, spontaneous dribble (Pollock)
color-field painting
 
simplicity, colors are primary
greenburg
 
critic of Modern art
post-painterly abstraction
 
greenberg perceived there was a new movement of painting that derived from abstract expressionism but favored openness and clairy as opposed to dense painterly surfaces
minimalism
 
extreme simplification of color and form
pop art
 
popular culture, advertisments
conceptual art
 
transmission of ideas is more important than the creation of an art object
performance art
 
actions of individual at a place in a time constituting the work
earthworks
 
form of art created in nature that uses natural materials such as stones, leaves, or soil
documentation
 
taking picture of earthworks
new media art
 
art created with new technology
video art
 
type of art which relies on moving pictures and comprises video and/or audio
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