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What is Archaeology?
The study of physical and cultural remains of past people- typically covers what written history...
"That complex whole which includes knowledge, beliefs, art, law, morals, customs and other...
What are the goals of archaeology? Which goals
- To recover and preserve material remains-Document patterned relationships-To reconstruct...
Everyday cultural customs and practices---ways of living. (Do this through ethnographic research.)
A careful, accurate description of cultures. (What they see.)
1. Cultural Anthropology (Ethnology)2. Archaeology 3. Physical Anthropology4. Linguistic...
Anthropology and its relationship to archaeology
Anthropology rests on the idea that human behavior can be scientifically studied in spite of...
Cross Cultural Study
Both arch. and anthro. are cross cultural studies. -can look and compare cultures from...
What arch. is NOT.
-paleontology-Most things on history channel-Anything in movies
Old world vs. new world archaeology
-The old world is what was known to Europeans before Columbus. (ie Europe, Africa, Asia and...
Centered on culture----look at how people live as opposed to historical documents.
Study of original documents describing the past, such as those written by travelers, explorers...
Focus on study of Ancient Rome/Greece - Learn latin/greek
Study of remains of cultures. --Could be as recent as 10-20 years ago. -Civil war,...
Any object produced/altered by humans.
Ecological (floral, faunal, geophysical)-Natural remains of plants and animals.
Any highly localized area of human use or modifications (Pyramids)
Site and Site Layout
- A Site is an isolated area of concentrated archaeological remains.-Site layout is the locations...
Recognizable characteristic/quality of an artifact.
Whole set of artifacts representing material culture inventory or repertoire in a cultural...
Distribution of archaeology sites near the landscape.
Sites in a particular region during a particular period of time, and their social, economic...
Middle Range Theory
Theory you use to operate/study before you can use it.-Ideas and concepts archaeologists use...
The systematic study of the physical or material world seeking to discover and formalize general...
The rebirth of European intellectual curiosity about the natural world and the role of humans...
Proper term for the systematic and comparative study of culture, including both modern and...
The study of cultural characteristics of a particular ethnic or social group.
Physical remnants of a past society including ecofacts, artifacts, features architecture and...
study of the remains of culture for which historical documents are available.
Ethnoarchaeology and the Nunamiut Eskimos (chpt.2)
study of the observable dynamic behavior of living people in order to develop models to interpret...
Study and interpretation of ancient inscriptions.
illustrations based on stylized symbolic forms or icons. Also the study and interpretation...
use of material and nonmaterial aspects of a living culture to form models to test interpretations...
An object's setting in time and place, and its affinity to other things.
location of an object and its spatial relation to other objects found in archaeological record
Age/date of an object and its temporal relation to other objects in the arch. record.
Affinity of an object to a general class of objects sharing general characteristics of form.
Site Formation Process
Natural and cultural processes or transformations that have in combination with each other,...
chronological relationships among relatively younger and older things, even though no actual...
amount of time elapsed since an object was made or used.
absolute dating method developed by Libby, which determines the absolute age of an organic...
Piece of broken pottery vessel.
the chronological arrangement of the time phases and events of a particular culture.
sets of interrelated changes occurring through time, operating very broadly in geographical...
theoretical perspective that culture and environment interact dynamically. a program for analyzing...
The way energy and materials are produced, distributed and consumed.
the way relationships among the members of a culture are structured, and how much differentiation...
the way in which a society is organized to make and enforce political decisions and to resolve...
Belief system of a particular society including values and ethics.
-actually good for archaeologists- Mt. vesuvius erupts in 79AD covering entire town. -Pumice...
mineralized traces/impressions of an organism. -majority of organisms don't leave behind...
study of process of fossilization
Bog or peat is very good at preserving organic remains by pickling them.
both naturally occurring and man-man made.
influence social groups and associate cultures. Environment plays a huge role for the formation...
-Oldest layers of strata are deepest. -newest layers on top-defining chronology can be...
people build for their environment.-looks at past civilizations built.
Social and political organization.
Cultural Evolution (Film)
Cultural evolution is when a society goes from simple to complex , and changes to inter-dependence....