APUSH Test 2

APUSH Test 2 APUSH Test 2 Study Set
  
Changes are done, please view the flashcard.

Preview Flashcards

FrontBack
Expansion of Railroads
 
Railroad track miliage + 113%, more railroad cars. Patrons of hunbantry form to negotiate railroad use costs for farmers, trains convert to use steel wheels, +1000% in steel production
The Grange
 
Oliver Hudson Kelley 1867, formed the National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry, at first devoted to educational events and social gatherings.
Granger Laws
 
series of laws passed to regulate grain and railroad freight costs / abuses against farmers
William Jennings Bryan (platform)
 
Bryan endorsed free silver, supported income tax, condemed trusts,
Munn V.S. Illinois
 
States can regulate private businesses/industries in the interest of the people
Interstate Commerce Act
 
1887 - outlawed pools, descriminatory rates for use of railroads against farmers/workers
Interstate Commerce Commission
 
reglatory body created by ICA, central issue was rate discrimination between similarly situated customers and communities Between 1910 and 1934, the ICC had the authority to regulate interstate telephone services.
Time Zones
 
1883, result of railroads & need to set arrival/departure times
Tecnological Advancements/Inventions
 
telephone, lights, typewriter, first skyscrapers
Theory of the Leisure Class
 
book, first published in 1899 by Thorstein Veblen, critique of consumerism, emerging wealthy class = leisure class (gain on the back of the working class)
Where the rich built their summer homes
 
5th Avenue and Newport RI
"Robber Barrons" (names and industries)
 
Cornelius Vanderbilt (railroads), Henry B. Plant (railroads) - Florida, Henry Clay Frick (steel) – Pittsburgh and New York City, James Buchanan Duke (tobacco) – near Durham, North Carolina, Andrew Carnegie (steel) - Pittsburgh and New York,
Standard Oil
 
John D. Rockefeller, Standard Oil, predominant American integrated oil producing, transporting, refining, and marketing company. Established in 1870 as a corporation in Ohio, it was the largest oil refiner in the world[3] and operated as a major company trust and was one of the world's first and largest multinational corporations. Engaged in practices that were lawful but drove many smaller businesses under, Standard Oil became widely criticized in the public eye
Sherman Antitrust Act
 
1890, first measure passed by the U.S. Congress to prohibit trusts
U.S. vs E.C. Knight Company
 
(1895), legal case in which the U.S. Supreme Court first interpreted the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890. The case began when the E.C. Knight Company gained control of the American Sugar Refining Company. Decision - Manufacturing is not considered an area that can be regulated by Congress pursuant to the commerce clause.
"In god we trusted in Kansas we busted"
 
This saying expressed the frustration of many settlers who "busted" or went broke on farms in western states like Kansas and Nebraska in the decades after the Civil War
wheat/cotton prices from 1870-1895
 
Prices Driven down by international over-abundance...deflation
People's Party/Populists
 
Established in 1887, Based among poor white cotton farmers in the South (especially North Carolina, Alabama and Texas), and hard-pressed wheat farmers in the Plains states (especially Kansas and Nebraska), anti-elitist, party's platform, commonly known as the Omaha Platform, called for the abolition of national banks, a graduated income tax, direct election of Senators, civil service reform, a working day of eight hours and Government control of all railroads, telegraphs, and telephones.
Public Credit Act
 
1869 - All civil war bond to be repayed in gold
Specie Resumption Act
 
1879, all greenbacks will be converted to gold
Greenback party
 
1874-1884, against transfer to gold, would give banks all the power, condemn use of militias and private policeagainst union strike, later support income tax, 8hr day, allow woman right to votes
Free Silver movement
 
reaction to "crime of 1873", which elliminated silver as form of currency, silverites who want silver to be considered money as well as gold, govt should purchase all silver at 16oz:1oz and coin at 16oz:1oz
16:1
 
16oz silver equals one oz of gold in value...coined accordingly
"crime of 1873"
 
silver dollar ommited from national currency in 1873, thought by laborers to be attempt to establish power in govt/banks
Bland-Allison Act
 
1878, required US Treasury to mint 2-4million$ silver each month and mint, president Hayes, vetoes, congress overwrote his veto
Sherman Silver Purchase Act
 
1890, named after senator John Sherman, Ohio republican, U.S. government was now required to purchase an additional 4.5 million ounces of silver bullion every month
national Farmer's Alliance
 
Farmers' Alliance was an umbrella term for several grassroots farmers organizations active between 1877 and 1892, most prominently in the South and the Plains states. These groups sought to ameliorate debt, poverty, and low crop prices by educating and mobilizing rural men and women, engaging in cooperative economic organizing, and asserting their power in electoral politics.
NFA's Political Platform
 
Alliance leaders demanded government regulation or outright ownership of telegraphs and railroads; revocation of large land grants to railroads; various antitrust remedies; a federal progressive income tax; direct election of U.S. senators by the people; and an increased money supply to benefit borrowers rather than lenders. Some Alliance leaders, especially in the West, also called for women's suffrage
Great Railroad Strike
 
1877, Baltimore, Kansas, City, CHicago, St. Louis, railroad workers go on strike after pay cut by 10% three times, one month to surpress, 100+injured, 100 dead, transport frozen, strike resolved by militia, workers lost, lead to formation of KNights of Labor
Knights of Labor
 
labor organization lead by Terrance Powderly, promoted the social and cultural uplift of the workingman, rejected Socialism and radicalism, demanded the eight-hour day, and promoted the producers ethic of republicanism. In some cases it acted as a labor union, negotiating with employers
Haymarket Bombing
 
1886 Chigago's Haymarket Square, socialist labor party, workers on strike, bomb thrown into police, police open fire, 8 accused, 7 convicted, one commits suicide, 4 hanged w/o proper evidence, 3 pardoned
American Federation of labor
 
founded in 1886 by an alliance of craft unions disaffected from the Knights of Labor, a national labor association. Samuel Gompers (1850-1924) was elected president of the Federation at its founding convention and was reelected every year except one until his death
Henry George (Progress + Poverty)
 
Progress and Poverty was written by Henry George in 1879. The book is a treatise on the cyclical nature of an industrial economy and its remedies. Progress and Poverty seeks to explain why poverty existed notwithstanding widespread advances in technology and even where there is a concentration of great wealth such as in cities.
Edward Bellamy (Looking Backward)
 
book tells the story of Julian West, a young American who, towards the end of the 19th century, falls into a deep, hypnosis-induced sleep and wakes up one hundred and thirteen years later. He finds himself in the same location (Boston, Massachusetts), but in a totally changed world: It is the year 2000 and, while he was sleeping, the U.S. has been transformed into a socialist utopia. The remainder of the book outlines Bellamy's thoughts about improving the future. The major themes are the dangers of the stock market, the use of credit cards, the benefits of a socialist legal system, music, and the use of an "industrial army" to make tasks run smoother.
William McKinley (Platform)
 
McKinley denounced free silver, would cause 57cent doller (deflation)
Homestead Strike/Results
 
1892, Homestead Plant (near Pittsburgh) (steel plant), Henry Frick (overseer) vs Amalagated Union of Iron+Steel workers, Frick cuts wages + elliminated union, gun battle between natiuonal gurrd/militia and workers (hire pinkerton detective agency), mill reopened as non-union plant, cheap labor, long hours (up to 24hr shifts)
Depression of 1893-1897
 
a serious economic depression in the United States,panic was marked by the collapse of railroad overbuilding and shaky railroad financing which set off a series of bank failures. Compounding market overbuilding and a railroad bubble was a run on the gold supply and a policy of using both gold and silver metals as a peg for the US Dollar value
Coxey's Army
 
1893, Washington, Jacob Coxey, 1st march on Washington, DC, demand public workers program, want government jobs for the unemployed, Coxey arrested, no sucess
Pullman Strike/Results
 
Eugene Debs - head of American Railway Union, 1894, workers on Pull man car company (rail cars for sleeping) 1/3 workers cut, wages cut 30%, woult reduce company housing/store costs, workers went to american railway union, Debs launched boycott of Pullman Cars, Debs to jail for violating Sherman act, state militia restors peace, 25dead, 60injured, 100's jailed, rail traffic stopped
American Railway Union
 
the largest labor union of its time, and one of the first industrial unions in the United States. It was founded on June 20, 1893, by railway workers gathered in Chicago, Illinois, and under the leadership of Eugene V. Debs
People's Party
 
Established in 1887, Based among poor white cotton farmers in the South (especially North Carolina, Alabama and Texas), and hard-pressed wheat farmers in the Plains states (especially Kansas and Nebraska), anti-elitist,
Leonidas Polk
 
Alliance president Leonidas Polk, editor of North Carolina's Progressive Farmer, would have probably been the party's first presidential nominee had he not died suddenly a few weeks before the 1892 convention, dashing hopes for a farmer candidate with nationwide appeal.
James B Weaver
 
Presidential cantidate for Populist party in 1892, won 9% of popular vote
Populists/Platform
 
party's platform, commonly known as the Omaha Platform, called for the abolition of national banks, a graduated income tax, direct election of Senators, civil service reform, a working day of eight hours and Government control of all railroads, telegraphs, and telephones.
Election 1892
 
Grover Cleaveland (democrat) vs Benjamin Harrison (Republican), vs James Weaver (Populist. Cleaveland wins with 277 electroal votes. The campaign centered mainly on the issue of a sound currency. The new Populist Party, formed by groups from the Grange, the Farmers' Alliances, and the Knights of Labor, polled more than a million votes. But Cleveland won easily.
Panic of 1893
 
a serious economic depression in the United States,panic was marked by the collapse of railroad overbuilding and shaky railroad financing which set off a series of bank failures. Compounding market overbuilding and a railroad bubble was a run on the gold supply and a policy of using both gold and silver metals as a peg for the US Dollar value
Mark Hanna
 
Chairman of Republican National Committe, developed from pourch campaign strategy
Election 1896
 
William Jennings Bryan (Democrat) vs WIlliam McKinley (Republican) McKinley won, Republican control for next 15years. Pulls US out of recession

Upgrade and get a lot more done!
Upgrade