APUSH Test 2

APUSH Test 2 Study Set

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Side ASide B
Expansion of Railroads
Railroad track miliage + 113%, more railroad cars. Patrons of hunbantry form to negotiate railroad use costs for farmers, trains convert to use steel wheels, +1000% in steel production
The Grange
Oliver Hudson Kelley 1867, formed the National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry, at first devoted to educational events and social gatherings.
Granger Laws
series of laws passed to regulate grain and railroad freight costs / abuses against farmers
William Jennings Bryan (platform)
Bryan endorsed free silver, supported income tax, condemed trusts,
Munn V.S. Illinois
States can regulate private businesses/industries in the interest of the people
Interstate Commerce Act
1887 - outlawed pools, descriminatory rates for use of railroads against farmers/workers
Interstate Commerce Commission
reglatory body created by ICA, central issue was rate discrimination between similarly situated customers and communities Between 1910 and 1934, the ICC had the authority to regulate...
Time Zones
1883, result of railroads & need to set arrival/departure times
Tecnological Advancements/Inventions
telephone, lights, typewriter, first skyscrapers
Theory of the Leisure Class
book, first published in 1899 by Thorstein Veblen, critique of consumerism, emerging wealthy class = leisure class (gain on the back of the working class)
Where the rich built their summer homes
5th Avenue and Newport RI
"Robber Barrons" (names and industries)
Cornelius Vanderbilt (railroads), Henry B. Plant (railroads) - Florida, Henry Clay Frick (steel) – Pittsburgh and New York City, James Buchanan Duke (tobacco) – near Durham,...
Standard Oil
John D. Rockefeller, Standard Oil, predominant American integrated oil producing, transporting, refining, and marketing company. Established in 1870 as a corporation in Ohio, it was...
Sherman Antitrust Act
1890, first measure passed by the U.S. Congress to prohibit trusts
U.S. vs E.C. Knight Company
(1895), legal case in which the U.S. Supreme Court first interpreted the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890. The case began when the E.C. Knight Company gained control of the American Sugar...
"In god we trusted in Kansas we busted"
This saying expressed the frustration of many settlers who "busted" or went broke on farms in western states like Kansas and Nebraska in the decades after the Civil War
wheat/cotton prices from 1870-1895
Prices Driven down by international over-abundance...deflation
People's Party/Populists
Established in 1887, Based among poor white cotton farmers in the South (especially North Carolina, Alabama and Texas), and hard-pressed wheat farmers in the Plains states (especially...
Public Credit Act
1869 - All civil war bond to be repayed in gold
Specie Resumption Act
1879, all greenbacks will be converted to gold
Greenback party
1874-1884, against transfer to gold, would give banks all the power, condemn use of militias and private policeagainst union strike, later support income tax, 8hr day, allow woman right...
Free Silver movement
reaction to "crime of 1873", which elliminated silver as form of currency, silverites who want silver to be considered money as well as gold, govt should purchase all silver at 16oz:1oz...
16oz silver equals one oz of gold in value...coined accordingly
"crime of 1873"
silver dollar ommited from national currency in 1873, thought by laborers to be attempt to establish power in govt/banks
Bland-Allison Act
1878, required US Treasury to mint 2-4million$ silver each month and mint, president Hayes, vetoes, congress overwrote his veto
Sherman Silver Purchase Act
1890, named after senator John Sherman, Ohio republican, U.S. government was now required to purchase an additional 4.5 million ounces of silver bullion every month
national Farmer's Alliance
Farmers' Alliance was an umbrella term for several grassroots farmers organizations active between 1877 and 1892, most prominently in the South and the Plains states. These groups sought...
NFA's Political Platform
Alliance leaders demanded government regulation or outright ownership of telegraphs and railroads; revocation of large land grants to railroads; various antitrust remedies; a federal...
Great Railroad Strike
1877, Baltimore, Kansas, City, CHicago, St. Louis, railroad workers go on strike after pay cut by 10% three times, one month to surpress, 100+injured, 100 dead, transport frozen, strike...
Knights of Labor
labor organization lead by Terrance Powderly, promoted the social and cultural uplift of the workingman, rejected Socialism and radicalism, demanded the eight-hour day, and promoted...
Haymarket Bombing
1886 Chigago's Haymarket Square, socialist labor party, workers on strike, bomb thrown into police, police open fire, 8 accused, 7 convicted, one commits suicide, 4 hanged w/o proper...
American Federation of labor
founded in 1886 by an alliance of craft unions disaffected from the Knights of Labor, a national labor association. Samuel Gompers (1850-1924) was elected president of the Federation...
Henry George (Progress + Poverty)
Progress and Poverty was written by Henry George in 1879. The book is a treatise on the cyclical nature of an industrial economy and its remedies. Progress and Poverty seeks to explain...
Edward Bellamy (Looking Backward)
book tells the story of Julian West, a young American who, towards the end of the 19th century, falls into a deep, hypnosis-induced sleep and wakes up one hundred and thirteen years...
William McKinley (Platform)
McKinley denounced free silver, would cause 57cent doller (deflation)
Homestead Strike/Results
1892, Homestead Plant (near Pittsburgh) (steel plant), Henry Frick (overseer) vs Amalagated Union of Iron+Steel workers, Frick cuts wages + elliminated union, gun battle between natiuonal...
Depression of 1893-1897
a serious economic depression in the United States,panic was marked by the collapse of railroad overbuilding and shaky railroad financing which set off a series of bank failures. Compounding...
Coxey's Army
1893, Washington, Jacob Coxey, 1st march on Washington, DC, demand public workers program, want government jobs for the unemployed, Coxey arrested, no sucess
Pullman Strike/Results
Eugene Debs - head of American Railway Union, 1894, workers on Pull man car company (rail cars for sleeping) 1/3 workers cut, wages cut 30%, woult reduce company housing/store costs,...
American Railway Union
the largest labor union of its time, and one of the first industrial unions in the United States. It was founded on June 20, 1893, by railway workers gathered in Chicago, Illinois,...
People's Party
Established in 1887, Based among poor white cotton farmers in the South (especially North Carolina, Alabama and Texas), and hard-pressed wheat farmers in the Plains states (especially...
Leonidas Polk
Alliance president Leonidas Polk, editor of North Carolina's Progressive Farmer, would have probably been the party's first presidential nominee had he not died suddenly a few weeks...
James B Weaver
Presidential cantidate for Populist party in 1892, won 9% of popular vote
party's platform, commonly known as the Omaha Platform, called for the abolition of national banks, a graduated income tax, direct election of Senators, civil service reform, a working...
Election 1892
Grover Cleaveland (democrat) vs Benjamin Harrison (Republican), vs James Weaver (Populist. Cleaveland wins with 277 electroal votes. The campaign centered mainly on the issue of a sound...
Panic of 1893
a serious economic depression in the United States,panic was marked by the collapse of railroad overbuilding and shaky railroad financing which set off a series of bank failures. Compounding...
Mark Hanna
Chairman of Republican National Committe, developed from pourch campaign strategy
Election 1896
William Jennings Bryan (Democrat) vs WIlliam McKinley (Republican) McKinley won, Republican control for next 15years. Pulls US out of recession

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