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Side ASide B
developed out of the populist movement, came to dominate the first 2 decades of the twentieth century american politics. progressives were urban, middle class reformers who wanted to...
hournalists who wrote exposes of corporate gree dand misconduct. revealed widespread corruption in urban management, oil companies, and the meatpacking industry.
exposed corruptiion in urban management in the Shame of the Cities
exposed curruption of the oil industries in her history or standard oil
exposed corruption in the meat packing inudstry with /the Jungle
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
headed by WEB Du Bois, this group worked to fight against black discrimination. Du Bois abandoned the quest for racial justice and moved to AFrica
The feminist movement
lead by margaret sanger, faced whide opposition for promiting the use of contraceptives (illegal in most places.)
the feminist movements greatest succes during the 20th century. won women the right to vote.
led the way for many progressive state leaders. LaFollette in wisconson implemented plans for direct promary elections, progressive taxation,a nd rail regulation.
many states extended greater power to voters by adopting the ballot initiative, through which the voters coupd propose new laws
allowed the public to vote on new laws
gave voters the power to remove officials from office before their terms expired.
most prominent PRogressive leader. people expected him to be a conservative, but his politics surprised people.first to use the sherman anti trust act effectively against monopoplies....
President after Teddy Roosevelt, spearheading the drive for 2 constitutional amendments, one that instituted a national income tax (16th amendment) and one that allowed fo rdirect elections...
pres after taft, ran against roosevelt who ran for reelection on the bull moose ticket. roosevelts policies reffered to as new nationalism, wilson refered to his ideas as new freeedom....
T Roosevelts administration strongarmed cuba into accepting the Platt amendment, which committed Cuba to American semi control. Cuba could not make a treaty without US approval, the...
under T Roosevelt, Congress approved a plan for a canal through Panama to shorten the sea trip from the east coast to california. he was very interventionist throughout central america....
Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctine
known as the big stick policy, US trooops intervened repeatedly in Latin America claiming that the region was domestically instable and constituted a threat to American national security.
When WWI broke out, Wilson had jsut been elected president as a democrat. war broke out in 1914 and wilson immidiately declared neutrality, calling for america to treat all the belligerents...
British blockade on germany
britain imposed a blockade on germany very effectivly because of its superior naby. we were still trading with germany and the blockade hurt us economically. protests were futile and...
submarines and U boats
germany attempted to counter the blockade with submarines or U boats. according to contemporaneous international law, an attacker had to warn civilian ships before attacking. Submarines...
German submarines sank the passenger ship the Lusitania in 1915 killing 1,200 passengers, the action provoked the condemnation of both the government and much of trhe public. Germans...
Sinking of the Arabic and preparedness
when germany continued submarine warfare, they sank another passsenger liner, the arabic. in responce, wilson, while still maintaining neutrality, asked congress to put the military...
british intercepted telegram from german foreign minister zimmerman in 1917. outlined a german plan to keep the US out of the european war. stated that if mexico were to declare war...
War Industry Board
created to coordinate all facets of industrial and agricultural production, sought to guarantee that the US and the rest of the allies would be well supploed. had mixed success, because...
1917 prohibited anyone from using the US mail system to interfere with the war effort and draft.
Sedition Act 1918
illegal to try and prevent the sale of war bonds or to speak disparagingly of the govt, the flag, the military, or the constitution. violated the first amendment but was worded vaguely...
Schenck v. United States
1919 the supreme corut upheld the espionage act. Schenck was aprominent socialist and ccritic of american ca[italism which he belived was why the US went to war. he was arrested for...
Federal Bureau of investigation
created to prevent radicals from taking over. Headed by J. edgar Hoover. radical labor unions were branded enemies of the state, and their leaders were incarcerated such as Eugene Debs.
early 1920. the govt abandonded all pretext of respecting civil liberties as its agents raided union halls, pool halls, social clubs, and residences to arrest 4,000 suspected radicals....
Committee on Public Information (CPI)
wartime propaganda arm of the government. messages became more sensational as the war went on. created nasty images of the germans and the Huns. americans rejected anything german....
Women opportunities from WWI
not really increased employment for omen, but their means of employment changed. many women quit domestic work and started working in factories. workplace advances ended the war as...
Blacks during WWI
many blacks in the south moved to the big cities in the north realizing that wartime manufacturing was creating jobs. many blacks joined the army as WEB Du Bois encouraged them to enlist,...
american participation in WWI tipped the balance in the allies favor, and 2 years after american entry, the germans were ready to negotaite a peace treaty. wilson wanted the treaty...
Treaty of Versailles
european allies anted a peace settlement that punished germany. under Versaille, germany was forced to cede german and colonial territories to the allies, to disarm, to pay huge reparations,...
debate over the League of nations in the US
main debate over article X. many people belived it curtailed americas ability to act independently in foreign affairs, specifically congresses power to declare war. senate split into...
wilson was unwilling to compromise, especially since henry cabot lodge was wilsons political nemesis and intellectual rival. he would not accept the lodge resevations, allowing the...
The Jazz age and the Great Depression - pro buisness (1920-1933)
after WWI, the progressive reform ended. americans became more comfortable with the idea of large successful buisnesses. hte govt gew to be more pro buisness. govt regulatory agenices...
Presidents Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover
presidents during the jazz age and great depression. pursied pro buisness policies and surrounded themselves with like minded advisorts.
Teapot Dome Scandal
Harding, an honest presidnet surrounded himself with corrupt advisors, and several of his cabinet members wound up in proson. the teapod dome scandal occured where the oil companies...
Hardins domestic policy
more liberal than wilson when it came to civil rights though more economically conservative. supported anti lynching laws and tried to help farmers by providing more moneyfor farming...
drop in labor union participation
caused by pro buisness atmosphere. efforts of buisnessess to woo orkers ith pension plans, opportunitiwe for profit sharing, and company parties. buisnesses hoped that if they offered...
henry ford lowerd the cost of automobiles with assembly line and production. mby the end of the decad,e most middle class familes could afford a car. allowed those who worked in the...
changed the nations culture during the jazz age. created the advertising indursry to hype all the new products. they were quite effective at convincing people to buy things they didnt...
required families to have alot of money and single earner households often couldnt affort to heep up with the joneses. caused many womento enter the working world. women continued to...
changed the traditional role of women. new ideas were brought by WWI, the big city, the right to vote, ans Sigmund freud. women discarded the corset, layers of e=petticodes. wore short...
Culture of the movies
grew rapidly in the 1920s and reflected the modernization of american society. reflecteed the nation as yound, indtependent minded and gourgous while being rich.
the lost generation
F. Scott Fitzgerald, ernist hemingway, and eugene o Neill. many of these writers moved to wurope where they chrinucled their alienation from the modern era.
in the largest black neighborhood of NC+YC, theatres, cultureal clubs, and newpapers sprung up. WEB Du Bois prominance helped draw attention to the harlems cultural ovement.
popularization of jazz
black cultural development, featured improvisation and free spiritedness, came to me seen as emblematic of the era. most popular and most gifted was the trumpeter Louis Armstrong
Ku Klux Klan
vacklash from the rapid transition into the modern age. grew to more than 5 million members and widened its targets, attacking blacks, jews, urbanites, and anyone whose behavior deviated...
Sacco and Vanzetti
anti immigration groups grew against the southern and eastern eurioean immigrants. intensified wwhen two italian immigrant anarchsitsts, Sacco and Vanzetti were arrested on charges...
Emergency Quota Act of 1924
set immigration quotas based on national orgins and discriminated against the new immigrants who came from southern and eastern europe. these limits were set to reduce "foreign infliuence"...
John Thomas Scopes and the Scopes Monkey trial
broke a rule about not teaching evolution in schools. Clarence Darrow and William Jennings Bryan argued the case. captivated the nation because encapsulated the devate over whether...
banned the maufacture, sale, or transport of alcoholic beverages. had roots in the reform campaigns of the 1830s, remained on womens priorities until the 18th amendment was passed
outlawed frinking, passed in 1917. people came to resent the governments intrusion in what they considered a private matter. prohibition weakened by the effectiveness of organized crome...
just after hoover was elected president, the stock market crashed, as one of the main reasons for hte great depression.
irresponsible speculation helped lead to the stockmarket crash as traders weer buying on margin and only put up 10 to 20% of the cost of each stock. many of these speculators...
shanty towns built by the homeless who had lost their life savings and were unable to keep up with the mortgage payments.
farmers effected in the depression by the dust bowl with the great plains area odf the midwest. encouraged agrarian unrest as farmers fought evictions and foreclosures by attacking...
Farmers Holiday association
created during the great depression by farmers to keep prices at farm actions low. organized demonstrations and threatened a nationwide walkout by farmers in order to raise prices.
Hawley Smoot Tariff
at first hoover opposed federal relief efforts because it violated rugged individualism but as the depression worsened, he initiated a few farm assistance programs and campaigned for...
Bonus Expeditionary Force
Congress considered early payment of benefits to WWI veterans. thousands of veterans walked in washington to lobby the bill. when it was defeated, many refused to leave, squatting in...
Franklin D Roosevelt
won easily over hoovers reelection because he argued for a more interventionist government with relief payments to the unemployed. also hoover took the blame for macarthur with the...
First Hundred Days
emergancy session of congress in 1933 when roosevelt took office. lasted 100 days and the govt impelented most of the programs associated with the First New Deal. the first 100 days...
First New Deal
included the Emergency Banking RElief bill, the fireside chats, the Banking Act of 1933, the Federal deposit Insurance Corporation, the Agricultural Adjustment act, the Farm Credit...
Emergency Banking Relief Bill
put poorly managed banks under conrtol of the tresury department and granted government licenses to those that were solvent.
roosevelt reassured the public that the banks were once again secure. more than 60 million americans listened and redepositied their savings. made american banks healthy again.
Banking Act of 1933
created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) to guarantee bank deposits, which was a big deal since people used to lose all of their money if the bank went banrupt.
Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
in responce to the overproduction of farmers and their low prices. The AAA provided payments to farmers in return for their agreement to cut production by up to one half, the money...
Farm Credit Act
passed right after the AAA< provided loans to those farmers in danger of foreclosure.
National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA)
established government control over industry. consolidated buisnesses and coordinated their activities with the aim of eliminating overproduction and by doing so, stabilized prices....
Public Works Admonistration PWA
set aside $3 billion to create jobs building roads, sewers, public housing units, and other civic necessities.
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
provided grants to the states to manage their on PWA like projects.
Tennessee Valley Authority TVA
one of the new deals most daring moves, the govt took over the TVA. under govt control the TVA expanded its operations greatly. which led to the economic recovery of the region.
National LAbor RElations Board
created during the first hundred days. mediated labor disputes but wasnt implemented until 1934.
Securities and Exchange Commision (SEC)
regulated the stockmarket. created during the first hundred days but not implimented until 1934.
Conservative opposition to the new deal
opposed the higher tax rates that the new deal brought, also disliked the increase in government power over business, and complained that relief programs removed incentive for the poor...
Leftist opposition to the New Deal
Complained that the AAA policy of paying farmers not to grow was immoral, given that many americans were still too poor to feed themselves. also felt thast the government policy towards...
despair caused by the Depression provided fodder for a more radical left, and the socialists were gaining popularity by calling for the nationalization of buisnesses.
Schechter poultry coup vs US
invalidated sections of the NIRA ont he grounds that the codes created under this agency were unconstitutional because they were basically laws and only congress had the power to create...
United states v. butler
the aAA was struch down. Roosevelt responded by trying to pack the courts by increasing the size from 9 to 15. obvious to both sides od congress of his courtbacking and didnt pass.
Second New Deal
included the Works PRogress Administration (WPA), the second hundred dats, broadening the pwoers of the NIRA< Social Security Adnimistration, the New Deal Association.
Works PRogress Administration (WPA)
generated more than 8 million jobs, all paid for by the govt. along with public works prpjects,t he WPA employed writers, photographers, and other artists to create travel guides and...
Secon Hundred days
the summer of 1935 was called this because importance of the legislation passed was comparable to the fist hundred days. during this, Congess broadended the powers of the NLRB, democratized...
Social Security Adminisration
created during the second hundred days. provided retirement benefits for many orkers, incluiding the disabled, and families whose main bread winner had died.
New Deal Coalition
the cumulative effect of these programs led to the creation of the new deal coalition, made up of union members, urbanites, the underclass, and blacsk who had previously voted republican...
Judicail organization bill
first failure of FDRspresidency happened during begining of his second term. tried to appoint a new judge for every judge already above 70. would have allowed 6 new supreme court jsutives...
caused by FDR cutting back on new deal policies in an effort to balance the budget after he had thought they had worked. also the fedeal reserve boardtightened the credit supply in...
FDR had to take money out of his new deal policies to build up the military when it looked like europe was going to go to war again. the administration passed a second new deal that...
Fair Labor Standads ACt
set a minimum wage and established the 40 hour work week for a number of professions. not long after, the new deal came to an end.
The WAshington conference !921-1922
8 of the worlds great powers met, resulting in treaty set limits on stockpiling armaments and reaffirmed the open door policy toward china. caused independent internationalism instead...
The Kellogg Briand Pact 1928
62 nations signed the pact which condemed war as a means of foeign policy. although it contained no enforcement clauses, the pact was idely considered a good first step toward a post...
Good Neigbor Policy 1934
in latin america, the US tried to back away from its interventionist policy and replace it with the good neighbor policy. misleading name as the US continued to actively promote its...
during the republican administrations of the 1920s, the US govt kept tariffs high.
Reciprical Trade Agreements Act
under FDR< allowed the president to reduce tariffs if he felt doing so would help achieve foreign policy goals. used as economic leverage for a foreign policy tool.
most favored nation trade status
under the Reciprocal trade Agreements Act. countries granted this status were eligible for the lowest tariff rate set by the United states, if they played their cards right.
disenchantment with the results of WWI led to isolationist sentiment, a stance amplified by the findings of the Nye commission. the commission report in 1936 revealed unwholesome activities...
congresses responce to the nye commission. the first prohibited the sales of arms to either belligerent in war, though roosevelt sidesteped this with china and japan by failing to acknolwedge...
cash and carry
when WWII broke out, congress responded with the 3rd neutrality act which required the allies to pay cash for their weapons, and to come to th eUS to pick up their purchases and carry...
Lend Lease Act
roosevelt worked ot assist the allies with the limits allowed by the neutrality ats. he instituted the nations first peace time military draft. the lend lease act was forced through...
Atlantic Charter Conference
FDR and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill met at the conference, declaring the allies war aims which included disarmament, self determination, freedom of the seas, and guarantees...
Japan entered an alliance with ITaly and Germany in 1940. THe us responded to japanese agression with cutting off trade to japan. the embargo included oil which japan needed to fuel...
Japan attacked pearl harbor in responce to the embargo placed by the US. the US waited for japan to attack first to guarantee popular support of the war at home.
the big three
Roosevelt, Stalin, and Churchill. first met at the teheran conferenfce where they planned D Day, the invasion of normandy france and agreed tp divide a defeated germany into occupation...
War Production Board
during world war II. allowed the governmetn to acquire more power than it previously had by overseeing mobilization of industry toward the war effot. in return, buisnesssess were guaranteed...
rationins of almost all consumer goods was imposed. the govt sponsored scientific research directed at imporving weapondry, deveeloping radar, and the atomic bomb.
Labor Disputes Act 1943
passed in reaction to a disconcerting number of strikes in essential industries, allowed govt take over of buisnessess deemed necessary to national security, which gasme the govt authority...
hollywood during WWII
enlisted to create numerous propaganda films, both to encourage support on the homefront and to boost morale of the troops overseas. govt tripled over tthe course of the war.
Selective Training and Service act of 1940
created the first peacetime draft in US history and established the Selective Service System, which porivided about 10 million soldiers toward the war effort.
african americans in WWII
more than a million blacks enlisted, but lived and worked in segregated uniits. the US army was not desegredated until after the war, during the truman administration in 1948.
women during WWII
rosie the rivetor - used to persuade women to pick up factory jobs in war production to help the war effort. however, after the war, women were expected to put back on their aprons...
internment of Japanese Americans
1942 till 1945. govt imprisoned more than 110000 japanese americans, over 2/3 whom were born in the uS. afraid that they might serve as energy agents. none were ever charged with a...
Korematsu vs. United States
upheld the internment policy of the United States of Japanese Americans.
the victorious allies in 1945 met to redraw the world map. Stalin wanted to created a buffer zone between the soviet union and western europe, to surround himself with friendly nations...
satellites and the Iron curtain
began 3 weeks after the Yalta conference when Soviet tanks rolled into Romania.
the United Nations
created by the victorious allies to mediate future international disputes.
the allies met at Postdam to decide how to implement the agreements of Yalta. this time, truman represented the US, as FDR had died in april. things did not go well as truman was not...
used by truman because of american soviet animostiy because america feared soviets would enter the asian war and attempt to expand their influence further. the US wanted to display...