APUSH History Final

Mac's APUSH Final @ Rosati
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Post Civil War South
destroyed; government sets up office called Freedmen's Bureau to protect newly freed slaves
Freedmen's Bureau
welfare for newly freed slaves
Andrew Johnson on ticket
Lincoln put Johnson on ticket because he was a Southerner and was pro-Union
Wade Davus Bill
vindictive plan for Reconstruction of South (pushed by Radical Republicans)
Black Codes
system to re-restablish authority and chain blacks to the land (sharecropping)
13th, 14th, and 15th amendments

13 - outlaws slavery
14 - equal protection under law
15 - right to vote
(all good for African-Americans)
Reconstruction timeline

1865 - 1877
Republicans get Hayes as president, Democrats gets the removal of troops from the South
women and 14th amendment

dislike 14th amendment because it's the first time the word "male" is used
(guarantees protection of black males, but not white women)
Thaddeus Stevens' Plan
head of Radical Republicans; things would be better for African-Americans in the South without his plan
Boss Tweed
got immigrants to vote for him; in charge of Tammany Hall; brought down by political cartoons
Credit Mobilier scandal
congressmen are bribed for land
late 19th century Democratic party
South and Catholics vote for Democrats
disenfranchising African-Americans
poll taxes, violence, lynching, literacy tests, grandfather clauses
Jim Crow laws
legalized segregation in the South
Pendleton Act
Federal employees can't contribute to political campaigns; look towards big business owners
Gilded Age presidents
all Republicans (except Cleveland)
Democratic tariff policies
wanted lower tariffs
election of 1888
won popular vote but not electoral vote
railroad funding
need land from government
impact of railroads
affects business
railroad technology
air brakes, standard gauge, telegraph, block signal
Interstate Commerce Act
regulate rail traffic
early industrial raw materials
iron & coal
Edison inventions
light bulb, movies, records
vertical integration (best ex.)
take over all parts in production process (Carnegie)
oil industry
(Rockefeller) industry explodes with internal combustion
corporations and 14th amendment
get equal protection under law (treated like citizens)
robber barons
Carnegie, Rockefeller, Vanderbilt
big city jobs
leaving farms and going to big cities for factory jobs
new immigrants
Southern and Eastern Europe
benefits of machine politics
give jobs to people to get their votes
Jane Addams/ Florence Kelley
start a settlement house
American Protective Association
nativists; against immigrants and Catholics
evolution; survival of the fittest
Booker T. Washington
thinks African-Americans should work within the system to become independent gradually in white society
W. E. B. DuBois
wants African-American independence now; starts NAACP
social realism literature

reflect society as it really is
(ex: The Jungle)
pop culture
industrialization; affects consumers; people have their hobbies
Native American War motives
resort to violence; want their land back; mad over broken treaties; all kinds of massacres by government
Plain Indians surrender
depend on buffalo; nomadic; government kills all the buffalo to get rid of them
Dawes Severalty Act
tries to make Native Americans assimilate
Homestead Act
settlers move West because government gives away land really cheap
1880's farmer's money problems
better and better at growing crops, but prices decrease; railroads cheat them and start to make groups to protect themselves
Farmer's Alliance
group made to protect farmers from railroads
Populist party
develops from Farmer's Alliance; new political party (wants silver and gold standard, not just gold, to pay loans)
William Jennings Bryan
nominated several times; charismatic and likeable
election of 1896
biggest issue - gold standard
near-wars and diplomatic crises
America wants to expand to compete on world level
Queen Liliuokalani
last queen of Hawaii; America goes after her because they want Hawaii
Teller Amendment
if America beats Spain, Cuba will be given to Cubans
Emilio Aquinaldo
America takes over Phillipines, Emlio Aquinaldo leads resistance
Spanish-American war legacy

Cuba - good
Phillipines - bad, we end up fighting them
Phillipine nationalism
Phillipines want control from Spanish, and then Americans
Open Door policy
trade with China
Theodore Roosevelt
extroverted, personable, energetic
Panamanian nationalism
U.S. supports Panamanian nationalism, split from Columbia
Roosevelt Corollary
in addition to supporting Panama, we want their canal; addition to Monroe Doctrine
Social Gospel

1900 - 1910
Progressivism, social reform; settlement houses started; Protestant endeavor
journalists that dug up stuff; investigative journalism; deals with social issues
17th amendment
popular election of senators (direct election), instead of state legislatures voting
initiative, referendum, and recall
Progressive era issues that try to expand democracy
female Progressive activity
comes out of settlement houses
TR's reform program

consumer protection, conservation, and regulation of corporations
The Jungle
by Upton Sinclair, about the meat-packing industry
TR's legacy
gives the presidency esteem and prestige (after bad Gilded Age presidents)
Taft's legacy
goes back on a lot of Roosevelt's ideas; stays with the status quo
Governor Wilson's legacy
Woodrow Wilson, made name for himself as reformer
election of 1912

Wilson: Democrat
Roosevelt: Progressive
Taft: Republican
Debs: Socialist
Wilson's personality
idealist, reformer, unwilling to compromise
Federal Reserve Act

establishes the Reserve Board
(President, Reserve Board, and then national banks)
Federal Trade Commission
response to corruption in stock market and business deals
Louis D. Brandeis
1st Jew to sit on the Supreme Court
Wilson's anti-imperialism
despite being anit-imperialist, invades Mexico, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic
WWI and U.S. economy
good economy (make money early on by trading with both sides)
Zimmerman note

secret note from Germany to Mexico
("join us and we'll give you back the Mexican Cession")
WWI draft
can't pay your way out, try to make it as far as possible
U.S. entering WWI
U.S. unprepared
18th and 19th amendments

18 - Prohibition
19 - women's suffrage
League of Nations
Wilson's dream; weak because U.S. isn't involved (wanted isolationism, Senate didn't approve it)
League of Nations' weakness
U.S. not involved because of Senate
Ku Klux Klan
popular in 1920's because of peak in immigration (fear of outsiders including Catholics)
Immigration Act of 1924
reaction to changing world (nativists against anything un-American)
Volstead Act
difficult to enforce in big cities (aka Prohibition)
John Dewey
education theorist that believed that education should apply to life (active learning)
1920's prosperity factors
rapid economic growth (assembly line, buying on credit)
consumer credit
rapid economic growth, buying things without money to back it up (pay more later)
automobile revolution
get suburbs because of better transportation, consolidation of schools, more promiscuity, women more indepent
"The Jazz Singer" - 1st talkie (movie with sound)
derived from slavery/ African-Americans; uniquely American
buying on margin
buying stocks with borrowed money; pay back more money later
Harding's economic policies
Republican; favors big business
American Legion lobbying
veterans from WWI; looking for their bonus (becomes Bonus Army ten years later)
Teapot Dome scandal
related to oil; scam in Harding administration
Coolidge personality
serious, calm, shy, boring, "Silent Cal"
Al Smith
1920's candidate; Catholic governor of New York; more colorful than other candidates
Hoover's personality
in charge of war effort in WWI, then Secretary of Commerce; presidential election is his 1st election; administrative skills qualify him
Hoover's depression solutions
wanted to wait and see what would happen with the Depression (Democrats wanted to give direct aid to people)
Bonus Army
wanted their bonus from WWI; march on Washington; veterans from WWI
Eleanor Roosevelt
wanted to give aid to poorest of the poor; 1st First Lady to take an active role
Democratic Party platform of 1932
wanted to give direct aid to people during Depression
Hundred Days
1st 100 days of FDR's administration; passes all this legislation ("alphabet soup"/ New Deal)

Works Progress Administration; put people to work
(ex: River Des Peres)
CIvilian Conservation Corps; put young men to work; most popular New Deal program (creates more jobs than any other)
Dust Bowl contributing factors
cut down all the trees, terrible drought, people farm lands they shouldn't, dry farming
Social Security Act
helps old and disabled people (orphans, etc.)
court-packing scheme
FDR wants to pack the court; unconstitutional
FDR's Good Neighbor policy
attempt to make friends with Latin American countries
Fascist aggression

Hitler - (German) invades European countries
Mussolini - (Italian) invades Ethiopia
Franco - (Spanish) overthrows Spanish government

cash and carry
at first we embarge (don't sell weapons to other countries), then use cash and carry policy (if you have the money, we'll sell to you), and then lend/lease (lend money to them to buy our weapons)
Munich Conference; gave Hitler Sudetenland and let him have his way
nonagrression pact
Hitler signs nonagression pact with Russia (wouldn't attack each other and they would split Poland in half)
destroyers for bases
America trades war ships for important military bases in Western Hemisphere

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