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APUSH History Final


Mac's APUSH Final @ Rosati
  
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Post Civil War South
 
destroyed; government sets up office called Freedmen's Bureau to protect newly freed slaves
Freedmen's Bureau
 
welfare for newly freed slaves
Andrew Johnson on ticket
 
Lincoln put Johnson on ticket because he was a Southerner and was pro-Union
Wade Davus Bill
 
vindictive plan for Reconstruction of South (pushed by Radical Republicans)
Black Codes
 
system to re-restablish authority and chain blacks to the land (sharecropping)
13th, 14th, and 15th amendments
 
13 - outlaws slavery 14 - equal protection under law 15 - right to vote (all good for African-Americans)
Reconstruction timeline
 
1865 - 1877 Republicans get Hayes as president, Democrats gets the removal of troops from the South
women and 14th amendment
 
dislike 14th amendment because it's the first time the word "male" is used (guarantees protection of black males, but not white women)
Thaddeus Stevens' Plan
 
head of Radical Republicans; things would be better for African-Americans in the South without his plan
Boss Tweed
 
got immigrants to vote for him; in charge of Tammany Hall; brought down by political cartoons
Credit Mobilier scandal
 
congressmen are bribed for land
late 19th century Democratic party
 
South and Catholics vote for Democrats
disenfranchising African-Americans
 
poll taxes, violence, lynching, literacy tests, grandfather clauses
Jim Crow laws
 
legalized segregation in the South
Pendleton Act
 
Federal employees can't contribute to political campaigns; look towards big business owners
Gilded Age presidents
 
all Republicans (except Cleveland)
Democratic tariff policies
 
wanted lower tariffs
election of 1888
 
won popular vote but not electoral vote
railroad funding
 
need land from government
impact of railroads
 
affects business
railroad technology
 
air brakes, standard gauge, telegraph, block signal
Interstate Commerce Act
 
regulate rail traffic
early industrial raw materials
 
iron & coal
Edison inventions
 
light bulb, movies, records
vertical integration (best ex.)
 
take over all parts in production process (Carnegie)
oil industry
 
(Rockefeller) industry explodes with internal combustion
corporations and 14th amendment
 
get equal protection under law (treated like citizens)
robber barons
 
Carnegie, Rockefeller, Vanderbilt
big city jobs
 
leaving farms and going to big cities for factory jobs
new immigrants
 
Southern and Eastern Europe
benefits of machine politics
 
give jobs to people to get their votes
Jane Addams/ Florence Kelley
 
start a settlement house
American Protective Association
 
nativists; against immigrants and Catholics
Darwinism
 
evolution; survival of the fittest
Booker T. Washington
 
thinks African-Americans should work within the system to become independent gradually in white society
W. E. B. DuBois
 
wants African-American independence now; starts NAACP
social realism literature
 
reflect society as it really is (ex: The Jungle)
pop culture
 
industrialization; affects consumers; people have their hobbies
Native American War motives
 
resort to violence; want their land back; mad over broken treaties; all kinds of massacres by government
Plain Indians surrender
 
depend on buffalo; nomadic; government kills all the buffalo to get rid of them
Dawes Severalty Act
 
tries to make Native Americans assimilate
Homestead Act
 
settlers move West because government gives away land really cheap
1880's farmer's money problems
 
better and better at growing crops, but prices decrease; railroads cheat them and start to make groups to protect themselves
Farmer's Alliance
 
group made to protect farmers from railroads
Populist party
 
develops from Farmer's Alliance; new political party (wants silver and gold standard, not just gold, to pay loans)
William Jennings Bryan
 
nominated several times; charismatic and likeable
election of 1896
 
biggest issue - gold standard
near-wars and diplomatic crises
 
America wants to expand to compete on world level
Queen Liliuokalani
 
last queen of Hawaii; America goes after her because they want Hawaii
Teller Amendment
 
if America beats Spain, Cuba will be given to Cubans
Emilio Aquinaldo
 
America takes over Phillipines, Emlio Aquinaldo leads resistance
Spanish-American war legacy
 
Cuba - good Phillipines - bad, we end up fighting them
Phillipine nationalism
 
Phillipines want control from Spanish, and then Americans
Open Door policy
 
trade with China
Theodore Roosevelt
 
extroverted, personable, energetic
Panamanian nationalism
 
U.S. supports Panamanian nationalism, split from Columbia
Roosevelt Corollary
 
in addition to supporting Panama, we want their canal; addition to Monroe Doctrine
Social Gospel
 
1900 - 1910 Progressivism, social reform; settlement houses started; Protestant endeavor
muckrakers
 
journalists that dug up stuff; investigative journalism; deals with social issues
17th amendment
 
popular election of senators (direct election), instead of state legislatures voting
initiative, referendum, and recall
 
Progressive era issues that try to expand democracy
female Progressive activity
 
comes out of settlement houses
TR's reform program
 
3C's consumer protection, conservation, and regulation of corporations
The Jungle
 
by Upton Sinclair, about the meat-packing industry
TR's legacy
 
gives the presidency esteem and prestige (after bad Gilded Age presidents)
Taft's legacy
 
goes back on a lot of Roosevelt's ideas; stays with the status quo
Governor Wilson's legacy
 
Woodrow Wilson, made name for himself as reformer
election of 1912
 
Wilson: Democrat Roosevelt: Progressive Taft: Republican Debs: Socialist
Wilson's personality
 
idealist, reformer, unwilling to compromise
Federal Reserve Act
 
establishes the Reserve Board (President, Reserve Board, and then national banks)
Federal Trade Commission
 
response to corruption in stock market and business deals
Louis D. Brandeis
 
1st Jew to sit on the Supreme Court
Wilson's anti-imperialism
 
despite being anit-imperialist, invades Mexico, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic
WWI and U.S. economy
 
good economy (make money early on by trading with both sides)
Zimmerman note
 
secret note from Germany to Mexico ("join us and we'll give you back the Mexican Cession")
WWI draft
 
can't pay your way out, try to make it as far as possible
U.S. entering WWI
 
U.S. unprepared
18th and 19th amendments
 
18 - Prohibition 19 - women's suffrage
League of Nations
 
Wilson's dream; weak because U.S. isn't involved (wanted isolationism, Senate didn't approve it)
League of Nations' weakness
 
U.S. not involved because of Senate
Ku Klux Klan
 
popular in 1920's because of peak in immigration (fear of outsiders including Catholics)
Immigration Act of 1924
 
reaction to changing world (nativists against anything un-American)
Volstead Act
 
difficult to enforce in big cities (aka Prohibition)
John Dewey
 
education theorist that believed that education should apply to life (active learning)
1920's prosperity factors
 
rapid economic growth (assembly line, buying on credit)
consumer credit
 
rapid economic growth, buying things without money to back it up (pay more later)
automobile revolution
 
get suburbs because of better transportation, consolidation of schools, more promiscuity, women more indepent
talkie
 
"The Jazz Singer" - 1st talkie (movie with sound)
jazz
 
derived from slavery/ African-Americans; uniquely American
buying on margin
 
buying stocks with borrowed money; pay back more money later
Harding's economic policies
 
Republican; favors big business
American Legion lobbying
 
veterans from WWI; looking for their bonus (becomes Bonus Army ten years later)
Teapot Dome scandal
 
related to oil; scam in Harding administration
Coolidge personality
 
serious, calm, shy, boring, "Silent Cal"
Al Smith
 
1920's candidate; Catholic governor of New York; more colorful than other candidates
Hoover's personality
 
in charge of war effort in WWI, then Secretary of Commerce; presidential election is his 1st election; administrative skills qualify him
Hoover's depression solutions
 
wanted to wait and see what would happen with the Depression (Democrats wanted to give direct aid to people)
Bonus Army
 
wanted their bonus from WWI; march on Washington; veterans from WWI
Eleanor Roosevelt
 
wanted to give aid to poorest of the poor; 1st First Lady to take an active role
Democratic Party platform of 1932
 
wanted to give direct aid to people during Depression
Hundred Days
 
1st 100 days of FDR's administration; passes all this legislation ("alphabet soup"/ New Deal)
WPA
 
Works Progress Administration; put people to work (ex: River Des Peres)
CCC
 
CIvilian Conservation Corps; put young men to work; most popular New Deal program (creates more jobs than any other)
Dust Bowl contributing factors
 
cut down all the trees, terrible drought, people farm lands they shouldn't, dry farming
Social Security Act
 
helps old and disabled people (orphans, etc.)
court-packing scheme
 
FDR wants to pack the court; unconstitutional
FDR's Good Neighbor policy
 
attempt to make friends with Latin American countries
Fascist aggression
 
Hitler - (German) invades European countries Mussolini - (Italian) invades Ethiopia Franco - (Spanish) overthrows Spanish government
embargo cash and carry lend/lease
 
at first we embarge (don't sell weapons to other countries), then use cash and carry policy (if you have the money, we'll sell to you), and then lend/lease (lend money to them to buy our weapons)
appeasement
 
Munich Conference; gave Hitler Sudetenland and let him have his way
nonagrression pact
 
Hitler signs nonagression pact with Russia (wouldn't attack each other and they would split Poland in half)
destroyers for bases
 
America trades war ships for important military bases in Western Hemisphere

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