APUSH Chapter 20

APUSH Chapter 20 Imperialism
Changes are done, please view the flashcard.

Preview Flashcards

Front Back
New Manifest Destiny
American attention shifted to foreign lands Frederick Jackson Turner (1890s) ~ produced fears that natural resources would soon dwindle - depression & social movements --> improve foreign affairs, importance of foreign trade increases (fear that European imperialism will leave Americans out of spoils)
John Fiske
English-speaking people would dominate every land that wasn't already the seat of an "established civilization" - destined to force their influence on other parts of the world
Josiah Strong Our Country: Its Possible Future and Its Present Crisis (1885)
Anglo-Saxon "race" represented civil liberty & pure Christianity - divinely commissioned to spread them
John Burgess
- duty of Anglo-Saxons = most politically talented (to uplift less fortunate people)
Alfred Thayer MahanThe Influence of Sea Power Upon History (1890)
- countries w/ great sea power = the great nations of history --> US is great (bounded by 2 oceans) - US needed: productive domestic economy, foreign commerce, two-ocean navy, and colonies for raw materials, markets, and navy bases - wanted to claim Pacific Islands & Hawaii
Venezuela-England Boundary Dispute (1895)
- dispute border between British Guiana and Venezuela --> Sec. of State Blaine had called for Pan-American Congress - Sec. of State Richard Olney charged that British was violating Monroe Doctrine when they refused to meet for council - Cleveland --> special commission to determine border (if British resist the decision, war with England)
Great Reproachment
- evolving relationship between US and England - realization that they share a lot
Importance of Hawaii
- Pearl Harbor ~ strategic position - price of sugar from Hawaii decreasing --> US wants to annex it to avoid tariffs - great stopping place for trade ships
Importance of Samoan Islands
- under the influence of US, GB, and Germany - each wanted a part of the strategic trading spot - US wanted the harbor of Pago Pago
Causes of Imperialism
- yellow journalists - New Navy policy (Mahan) - European imperialism in Africa - Social Darwinism/eugenics
Causes of Spanish American War
- "Yellow journalists" - McKinley - de Lome letter - Maine incident (de Lome letter & Maine incident ~ used as propaganda to support the war) - Manifest Destiny ~ America still wanted to expand (divine connection = justification for expansion) - Teller Amendment
Yellow Journalism
1895: renewed rebellion grows in Cuba - i.e. Pulitzer's New York World and Hearst's New York Journal dramatize the situation - Spanish general Weyler depicted as brutal - aroused public support for a war to liberate Cuba from Spanish control - jingoism: extreme patriotism
Cuban Revolt (1895)
- cause: deteriorating economic conditions due to the high Wilson-Gorman Tariff (cut off American market from Cuba) & Spanish concentration camps - Cuban immigrants in NY area --> Cuban Revolutionary Party to encourage American intervention - publicized Jose Marti (killed in battle) - Cleveland did nothing (even tried to quell the movement) - American motivation: huge sugar exports from Cuba (powerful economic motive)
de Lome Letter
- angered American public - Spanish minister to Washington Dupoy de Lome's letter was intercepted in Cuba & turned over the America - showed Spanish belief that McKinley was weak & wanted public support
Maine incident
- a ship called Maine in the Havana harbor blew up supposedly b/c of an external submarine mine --> killed 260 people - actually b/c of an internal accident in the engine - Last attempt to avoid conflict: McKinley asks Spain to agree to armistice with the revels and an end to the concentration camps - Spain refuses --> WAR
Teller Amendment
- ensured that Americans didn't take over Cuba
Benefits of the War
Sec. of State John Hay ~ called the Spanish-American War a "splendid little war" - short (only lasted April - August) - gained a lot of territory ( Puerto Rico, Guam, Cuba, and the Philippines) - few casualties - most soldiers were native Cubans
Difficulties of the War
- lack of food, supplies, medical care, experience - slow & inefficient mobilization - racial conflicts ~ black soldiers from West suffered segregation (but there was also equality ~ whites and blacks fought side by side)
- while war was going on in Cuba, Roosevelt ordered George Dewey to attack Spanish naval ships - May 1, 1898: Dewey invades Manila Bay --> destroys Spanish fleet
- Spanish sent Cerva to Cuba - American fleet planned to attack Santiago City - at San Juan Hill, Gen. Shafter on his way to Santiago - cavalry unit (Rough Riders) gained attention ~ led by T. Roosevelt - displayed courage & recklessness (i.e. Kettle Hill ~ later called it San Juan) - charged directly towards Spanish but left unscathed - Shafter was about to leave b/c of his sick troops but Cerva was ordered to evacuate b/c the Spanish had given up
Treaty of Paris
- confirmed the terms of armistice concerning Cub, Puerto Rico, and Guam - Spain ceded the Philippines to the US - US paid $20 million
Anti-Imperialists (Andrew Carnegie, Mark Twain, Samuel Gompers, Senator John Sherman)
- imperialism = immoral (goes against America's views) - feared "polluting" American population (eugenics) - industrial workers feared excess of immigrants - sugar growers feared unwelcome competition - Anti-Imperialist League: fought against annexation & attacked a widespread following in the NE
Imperialists (T. Roosevelt)
- imperialism ~ invigorate the nation, healthy restorative influence of the war - profit in the Philippines --> dominate oriental trade - immigrants don't have to become citizens and assimilate - missionaries - we are clearly capable
William Jennings Bryan - opinion on Philippines
- against the annexation of Philippines - thought we were gonna take the Philippines and then set them free --> supported the Treaty of Paris
Did the Constitution follow the flag?(Downes v. Bidwell)
Did America bring its democracy with its conquest? - no ~ US created jurisdiction to create law w/i territories (esp. to control revenue that wasn't allowed for proper states w/i the Union) - an insular case
Murchison Letter (1888)
- Californian Republican - published a letter suggesting that the British minister to the US said to vote for Cleveland - wanted to discredit Democrats int he election
Annexing the Philippines
- after the war, Philippines --> protectorate (not given freedom) - Open rebellion led by Emilio Aguinaldo ~ declares Philippines as independent - more casualties than in the Spanish-American war - rebels fled to the jungle --> guerrilla warfare - 1901: Aguinaldo captured --> insurrection ends
1901: Philippine Commission created to make appropriate recommendations about how to deal with the Philippines - led by William H. Taft ~ called the Filipinos his "little brown brothers" - US instituted education, sanitation/public health, and infrastructure reforms - Philippines finally won independence July 4, 1946
Spheres of Influence
- foreign powers lured by Chinese markets --> by late 19th cent, Japan & W. Europeans carved much of China in separate spheres
Open Door Note (1899)
- issued by Sec. of state John Hay - US at a disadvantage geographically (compared to Russia & Japan) --> US feared it might lose out - urged all great powers to announce that in their spheres of influence they would respect certain Chinese rights & the ideal of fair competition - gained wide acceptance in the US but not internationally
Boxer Rebellion (1900)
- millions of Chinese enraged by Open Door Policy --> Boxers (Chinese nationalists) killed over 200 missionaries & other whites - multinational force (~ 18,000) arrived to put down the rebellion ~ included Japan, Russia, Britain, France, Germany, and US - victorious allies assessed an indemnity of $333 million (US share: $24.5 million) --> later forgave $18 million - Chinese gov't set aside $$ to educate select group of Chinese students in the US as a gesture of goodwill --> later played significant role in westernizing Asia
Platt Amendment (1901)
- efforts to qualify the relationship with Cuba --> left Cuba quasi-independent - US had control over its foreign policy (can protect Cuban independence and internal property) - reflected US concern of maintaining control over Cuba
Enter Password


Upgrade and get a lot more done!