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APUSH Chapter 20

Imperialism
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Side ASide B
New Manifest Destiny 
American attention shifted to foreign lands Frederick Jackson Turner (1890s)...
John Fiske
English-speaking people would dominate every land that wasn't already the seat of an "established...
Josiah Strong Our Country: Its Possible Future and Its Present Crisis (1885)
Anglo-Saxon "race" represented civil liberty & pure Christianity  - divinely...
John Burgess 
 - duty of Anglo-Saxons = most politically talented (to uplift less fortunate people)
Alfred Thayer MahanThe Influence of Sea Power Upon History (1890)
 - countries w/ great sea power = the great nations of history --> US is great (bounded...
Venezuela-England Boundary Dispute (1895)
 - dispute border between British Guiana and Venezuela --> Sec. of State...
Great Reproachment
 - evolving relationship between US and England  - realization that they share...
Importance of Hawaii
 - Pearl Harbor ~ strategic position  - price of sugar from Hawaii decreasing...
Importance of Samoan Islands 
 - under the influence of US, GB, and Germany  - each wanted a part of the strategic...
Causes of Imperialism
 - yellow journalists  - New Navy policy (Mahan) - European imperialism...
Causes of Spanish American War 
 - "Yellow journalists"  - McKinley  - de Lome letter  -...
Yellow Journalism 
1895: renewed rebellion grows in Cuba  - i.e. Pulitzer's New York World and...
Cuban Revolt (1895)
 - cause: deteriorating economic conditions due to the high Wilson-Gorman Tariff (cut...
de Lome Letter 
 - angered American public  - Spanish minister to Washington Dupoy de Lome's...
Maine incident 
 - a ship called Maine in the Havana harbor blew up supposedly b/c of an external...
Teller Amendment
 - ensured that Americans didn't take over Cuba 
Benefits of the War
Sec. of State John Hay ~ called the Spanish-American War a "splendid little...
Difficulties of the War 
 - lack of food, supplies, medical care, experience - slow & inefficient mobilization  -...
Philippines 
 - while war was going on in Cuba, Roosevelt ordered George Dewey to...
Cuba
 - Spanish sent Cerva to Cuba  - American fleet planned to attack...
Treaty of Paris
 - confirmed the terms of armistice concerning Cub, Puerto Rico, and Guam  -...
Anti-Imperialists (Andrew Carnegie, Mark Twain, Samuel Gompers, Senator John Sherman)
 - imperialism = immoral (goes against America's views) - feared "polluting" American...
Imperialists (T. Roosevelt)
 - imperialism ~ invigorate the nation, healthy restorative influence of the war  -...
William Jennings Bryan - opinion on Philippines 
 - against the annexation of Philippines  - thought we were gonna take the Philippines...
Did the Constitution follow the flag?(Downes v. Bidwell)
Did America bring its democracy with its conquest?  - no ~ US created jurisdiction...
Murchison Letter (1888)
 - Californian Republican  - published a letter suggesting that the British...
Annexing the Philippines 
 - after the war, Philippines --> protectorate (not given freedom) - Open rebellion...
Spheres of Influence 
 - foreign powers lured by Chinese markets --> by late 19th cent, Japan & W. Europeans...
Open Door Note (1899)
 - issued by Sec. of state John Hay  - US at a disadvantage geographically...
Boxer Rebellion (1900)
 - millions of Chinese enraged by Open Door Policy --> Boxers (Chinese nationalists)...
Platt Amendment (1901)
 - efforts to qualify the relationship with Cuba --> left Cuba quasi-independent  ...


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