APUSH Chapter 20

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APUSH Chapter 20

Imperialism

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New Manifest Destiny 
 
American attention shifted to foreign lands Frederick Jackson Turner (1890s) ~ produced fears that natural resources would soon dwindle  - depression & social movements --> improve foreign affairs, importance of foreign trade increases (fear that European imperialism will leave Americans out of spoils)
John Fiske
 
English-speaking people would dominate every land that wasn't already the seat of an "established civilization"  - destined to force their influence on other parts of the world 
Josiah Strong Our Country: Its Possible Future and Its Present Crisis (1885)
 
Anglo-Saxon "race" represented civil liberty & pure Christianity  - divinely commissioned to spread them 
John Burgess 
 
 - duty of Anglo-Saxons = most politically talented (to uplift less fortunate people)
Alfred Thayer MahanThe Influence of Sea Power Upon History (1890)
 
 - countries w/ great sea power = the great nations of history --> US is great (bounded by 2 oceans) - US needed: productive domestic economy, foreign commerce, two-ocean navy, and colonies for raw materials, markets, and navy bases - wanted to claim Pacific Islands & Hawaii
Venezuela-England Boundary Dispute (1895)
 
 - dispute border between British Guiana and Venezuela --> Sec. of State Blaine had called for Pan-American Congress  - Sec. of State Richard Olney charged that British was violating Monroe Doctrine when they refused to meet for council - Cleveland --> special commission to determine border (if British resist the decision, war with England)
Great Reproachment
 
 - evolving relationship between US and England  - realization that they share a lot 
Importance of Hawaii
 
 - Pearl Harbor ~ strategic position  - price of sugar from Hawaii decreasing --> US wants to annex it to avoid tariffs  - great stopping place for trade ships
Importance of Samoan Islands 
 
 - under the influence of US, GB, and Germany  - each wanted a part of the strategic trading spot - US wanted the harbor of Pago Pago
Causes of Imperialism
 
 - yellow journalists  - New Navy policy (Mahan) - European imperialism in Africa  - Social Darwinism/eugenics 
Causes of Spanish American War 
 
 - "Yellow journalists"  - McKinley  - de Lome letter  - Maine incident (de Lome letter & Maine incident ~ used as propaganda to support the war)  - Manifest Destiny ~ America still wanted to expand (divine connection = justification for expansion) - Teller Amendment 
Yellow Journalism 
 
1895: renewed rebellion grows in Cuba  - i.e. Pulitzer's New York World and Hearst's New York Journal dramatize the situation - Spanish general Weyler depicted as brutal - aroused public support for a war to liberate Cuba from Spanish control  - jingoism: extreme patriotism 
Cuban Revolt (1895)
 
 - cause: deteriorating economic conditions due to the high Wilson-Gorman Tariff (cut off American market from Cuba) & Spanish concentration camps - Cuban immigrants in NY area --> Cuban Revolutionary Party to encourage American intervention - publicized Jose Marti (killed in battle)  - Cleveland did nothing (even tried to quell the movement)  - American motivation: huge sugar exports from Cuba (powerful economic motive)
de Lome Letter 
 
 - angered American public  - Spanish minister to Washington Dupoy de Lome's letter was intercepted in Cuba & turned over the America  - showed Spanish belief that McKinley was weak & wanted public support 
Maine incident 
 
 - a ship called Maine in the Havana harbor blew up supposedly b/c of an external submarine mine --> killed 260 people  - actually b/c of an internal accident in the engine  - Last attempt to avoid conflict: McKinley asks Spain to agree to armistice with the revels and an end to the concentration camps  - Spain refuses --> WAR 
Teller Amendment
 
 - ensured that Americans didn't take over Cuba 
Benefits of the War
 
Sec. of State John Hay ~ called the Spanish-American War a "splendid little war" - short (only lasted April - August) - gained a lot of territory ( Puerto Rico, Guam, Cuba, and the Philippines) - few casualties - most soldiers were native Cubans 
Difficulties of the War 
 
 - lack of food, supplies, medical care, experience - slow & inefficient mobilization  - racial conflicts ~ black soldiers from West suffered segregation (but there was also equality ~ whites and blacks fought side by side)
Philippines 
 
 - while war was going on in Cuba, Roosevelt ordered George Dewey to attack Spanish naval ships  - May 1, 1898: Dewey invades Manila Bay --> destroys Spanish fleet
Cuba
 
 - Spanish sent Cerva to Cuba  - American fleet planned to attack Santiago City  - at San Juan Hill, Gen. Shafter on his way to Santiago  - cavalry unit (Rough Riders) gained attention ~ led by T. Roosevelt       - displayed courage & recklessness (i.e. Kettle Hill ~ later called it San Juan)      - charged directly towards Spanish but left unscathed  - Shafter was about to leave b/c of his sick troops but Cerva was ordered to evacuate b/c the Spanish had given up 
Treaty of Paris
 
 - confirmed the terms of armistice concerning Cub, Puerto Rico, and Guam  - Spain ceded the Philippines to the US  - US paid $20 million 
Anti-Imperialists (Andrew Carnegie, Mark Twain, Samuel Gompers, Senator John Sherman)
 
 - imperialism = immoral (goes against America's views) - feared "polluting" American population (eugenics)  - industrial workers feared excess of immigrants  - sugar growers feared unwelcome competition  - Anti-Imperialist League: fought against annexation & attacked a widespread following in the NE 
Imperialists (T. Roosevelt)
 
 - imperialism ~ invigorate the nation, healthy restorative influence of the war  - profit in the Philippines --> dominate oriental trade  - immigrants don't have to become citizens and assimilate  - missionaries  - we are clearly capable 
William Jennings Bryan - opinion on Philippines 
 
 - against the annexation of Philippines  - thought we were gonna take the Philippines and then set them free --> supported the Treaty of Paris 
Did the Constitution follow the flag?(Downes v. Bidwell)
 
Did America bring its democracy with its conquest?  - no ~ US created jurisdiction to create law w/i territories (esp. to control revenue that wasn't allowed for proper states w/i the Union) - an insular case 
Murchison Letter (1888)
 
 - Californian Republican  - published a letter suggesting that the British minister to the US said to vote for Cleveland  - wanted to discredit Democrats int he election 
Annexing the Philippines 
 
 - after the war, Philippines --> protectorate (not given freedom) - Open rebellion led by Emilio Aguinaldo ~ declares Philippines as independent       - more casualties than in the Spanish-American war      - rebels fled to the jungle --> guerrilla warfare  - 1901: Aguinaldo captured --> insurrection ends 
1901: Philippine Commission created to make appropriate recommendations about how to deal with the Philippines  - led by William H. Taft  ~ called the Filipinos his "little brown brothers" - US instituted education, sanitation/public health, and infrastructure reforms  - Philippines finally won independence July 4, 1946 
Spheres of Influence 
 
 - foreign powers lured by Chinese markets --> by late 19th cent, Japan & W. Europeans carved much of China in separate spheres
Open Door Note (1899)
 
 - issued by Sec. of state John Hay  - US at a disadvantage geographically (compared to Russia & Japan) --> US feared it might lose out  - urged all great powers to announce that in their spheres of influence they would respect certain Chinese rights & the ideal of fair competition  - gained wide acceptance in the US but not internationally 
Boxer Rebellion (1900)
 
 - millions of Chinese enraged by Open Door Policy --> Boxers (Chinese nationalists) killed over 200 missionaries & other whites  - multinational force (~ 18,000) arrived to put down the rebellion ~ included Japan, Russia, Britain, France, Germany, and US  - victorious allies assessed an indemnity of $333 million (US share: $24.5 million) --> later forgave $18 million - Chinese gov't set aside $$ to educate  select group of Chinese students in the US as a gesture of goodwill --> later played significant role in westernizing Asia 
Platt Amendment (1901)
 
 - efforts to qualify the relationship with Cuba --> left Cuba quasi-independent       - US had control over its foreign policy (can protect Cuban independence and internal property) - reflected US concern of maintaining control over Cuba 
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