APUSH Chapter 2- Europeans Encounter The New World

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Portugese Exploration
Portugal expelled Muslims out of the Iberian Pennisula which allowed them to acess the Atlantic coast of Africa. Prince Henry the Navigator was an important figure because he funded expeditions to map the west coast of Africa and helped discover new trade routes.
Henry the Navigator
Son of Portugese King, went on expeditions to Africa to bring wealth and new sources, collected information of sailing techniques and geography, supported crusades against the Muuslims, encouraged sailors to explore, and searched for sources to boost the Portugese economy
Bartholomew Dias
Sailed around the Cape of Good Hope, came back with news that it could be a possible to sail to India and China
Vasco de Gama
Commanded first Portugese fleet to sail to India which Portugal used as a new sea route and used it to create a commercial empire in the East Indies
The Columbus Expedition
Initated European exploration and colonization of America
Isabella and Ferdinand
They funded Columbus's expedition and saw it as an inexpensive gamble. The potential loss was small, but potential gain was huge.
John Cabot (Caboto)
Was sent by King Henry VII of England to look for a Northwest Passage to the Indies across the North Atlantic; reached the tip of Newfoundland which was believed to be Asia
The Northwest Passage
Sea route across the Artic Ocean that reached Newfoundland
Ferdinand Magellan
Circumnavigated the globe in 1519; his voyage made clear that it was possible to sail west to reach the East Indies, but was disastourous.
The Columbian Exchange
Transatlantic trade of goods, people, and ideas.
Hernan Cortez and Spanish Exploration
Cortez went into Mexico and found a lot of gold; met a young girl (Malinali or Marina) who could translate which was vital to the Spainards; brought back an army to invade Tenochtitlan for gold; retreated from Tenotitlan and grouped with another tribe that went against Montezuma
Montezuma and the Mayans
Montezuma is the emperor of Tenochtitlan; welcomed Cortez and the soldiers into his city with food and gifts; was taken hostage by Cortez which then caused war; was conquered after Spanish and Tlaxcalans took over
Juan Ponce de Leon
Explored Florida to find gold, but killed by Calusa Indians
Hernando de Soto
Wanted to find another Peru in North America (a lot of gold), landed in Florida and fought his way through southeastern NA for 3 years, died of a fever, and his men returned with nothing
The Encomienda System
The system empowered the conquisitadors to rule Indians and the lands around and in their towns; in return of the labor of the Indians, the encomendero was responsible for their well being, gurantee order and justice, and encourge Indians to convert to Christianity
The Establishment of New Spain
Spain created New Spain which showed other Europeans how the New World could be made to serve the purposes of the Old; France and England were too busy with other concerns to explore
The toll of Spanish Conquest/Colonization
Indians faced diseases brought by Europeans, such as smallpox and measels; when the Indians died, the Spainards were at risk because their source of labor was dwindled down and began to use African Slaves; although, the riches of New Spain put Spain in a golden age
Martin Luther and the Protestant Reformation
Luther went against the Catholic church due to its corruption; they sold credits of purgatory to move them or their loved ones up in heaven; the church was not legit and the bible was the only true source
Charles V
Judicially bribed to secure his selection as HRE Charles V; used wealth of new spain to protect his empire and wanted to protect christianity from Protestant reformation; put Spain in bankruptcy due to constant war fundings and raised taxes
Giovanni de Verrazano
Was sent by France to scout the Atlantic coast of NA from North Carolina to Canada, looking for the Northwest Passage, but no results came out in the end
Sir Walter Raleigh
Organized an expedition in 1585 to settle Roanoke Island off the coast of present day North Carolina and found Roanoke
The lost colony of Roanaoke
When Roanoke was settled, all the colonists disappeared leaving only the word Croatoan in a tree; mostly died of natural causes and unfriendly Indians
What kind of trade routes existed in Europe between 12th and 15th centuries?
Spices, silk, carpets, ivory, gold, and other exotic goods traveled from Persia, Asia Minor, India, and Africa which were funneled into Europe by Meditteranean sea
Which factors encouraged Europeans to begin looking for new trade routes in the 15th century?
Opportunites of the Meditteranean sea, the Bubonic plague which forced Europeans to look for new trade routes in order to get food, insecurity and uncertainty of European life, people who hoped to enlarge their territory, science and technology
Why did the Portugese play a key role in European exploration?
The Portugese used African slaves to develop sugar plantations, which would become transplanted in America in the future
Why did Christopher Columbus believe that Asia could easily be reached by a westward route, and what was the significance of his voyage?
He believed that the earth was a sphere and he estimated that it took 2,500 miles to reach Asia, a shorter distance than the Portugese. He becamed obsssed with this plan and wanted to prove he was right. The significance was that he founded America which would dramatically change history.
Who settled New Spain, and what kind of social system did the colonists create?
The conquisitadors settled in New Spain and divided the loots among the crown and the rest; they set up an encomienda system (see definition)
What had Spain hoped for in its sponsorships of Columbus's voyages? What was the real value of new world discoveries in the first decades after Columbus had made landfall in San Salvador?
Spain wanted Columbus to bring home more gold and spread religion. They also wanted him to find more trade routes. When Columbus found San Salvador, it made people realize that there was more to discover the lands and people across the Atlantic.
In 16th century, what did France and England do to try to imitate Spanish colonization in the new world? Was either country as successful as Spain?
They warred with Spain in Europe, preyed on Spanish fleets, and ventured to the New World where they hoped to find a route to the East Indies or another to Mexico or Peru; both countries had failed because France did not come out with any results (see Giovanni) and England had failed to establish a colony (see Walter Raleigh)

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