+

APUSH Chapter 19

Imperialism 
   or     

Flashcard Set Preview

Side ASide B
Party Loyalty: Regionalism
Democrats: South ("Solid South")Republicans: North
Party Loyalty: Religion/Ethics 
Democrats:  - Catholic  - support immigration & the poor (felt that Republicans were assaulting their people & culture)Republicans:  - N. Protestants -...
Leaning to the "Right"
Conservative (Republicans)
Leaning to the "Left"
Liberal (Democrats)
Reasons for Party Loyalty
 - high voter turnout (78%) - party identification (more cultural than economic)
Stalwarts v. Half-Breeds 
 - competed against one another for control of the Republican party --> threatened to split the party  - interested in augmenting patronage  - Pres. Hayes...
Stalwarts 
 - led by Roscoe Conkling (NY) - favored traditional, professional machine politics  - Arthur succeeds Garfield after his assassination --> keeps most...
Half-Breeds 
 - led by James G. Blaine (Maine) - favored reform  - Garfield elected w/ a stalwart but defied stalwarts in his appointments/civil service reforms -->...
Pendleton Act (1883) 
 - sparked by assassination of Garfield  - first nat'l civil service measure  - required some federal jobs to be filled by competitive written examinations...
Mugwumps 
 - significant in the election of 1884 - some believed Republican candidate (James G. Blaine) was corrupt --> left for the Democratic party and dubbed "mugwumps" -...
Interstate Commerce Act of 1887
 - passed despite Cleveland's disapproval  - designed to curb railroads  - first large-scale legislation passed by fed. gov't to regulate corporations in the...
Conflicts with Election of 1888
 - tariff ("McKinley Tariff") ** - trusts  - railroad 
Election of 1888: McKinley tariff
Republicans: favored a high tariff  - stimulated American industry  - benefited all Americans (wealth will "trickle down" to the lower classes)  - wanted...
Election of 1888: Railroads 
 - also a major problem during Cleveland's presidential term Democrats: wanted more control over railroad  - court case: US v. E.C. Knight 
US v. E.C. Knight 
 - 98% of manufacting of refined sugar ~ from E.C. Knight  - effort to gov't to apply Sherman Anti-Trust Act --> Supreme Court refused b/c sugar was not involved in...
Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1890)
 - passed by Congress b/c of groing popular demand  - mid-1880s: 15 western/southern states made laws prohibiting combinations that restrained competition, but corporations...
Munn v. Illinois (1877)
 - supreme court case w/ corporate rates & agriculture  - allowed states to regulate certain businesses within their borders, including railroads (gave Illinois more...
Wabash decision (1886)
 - weakened the power of Munn v. Illinois  - ruled one of the Granger laws in Illinois as unconstitutional ~ infringed on power of Congress to regulate interstate commerce  -...
The Grange (1867)
 - first major farm organization  - Oliver H. Kelly touring the south after Civ. War --> appalled by isolation & drabness of rural life --> left gov't...
Reasons for Agrarian Malaise 
Belief that:  - the railroads were using discriminatory rates to exploit farmers  - big business used high tariffs to exploit farmers  - a deflationary...
Sub-treasuries 
 - major demand of Southern Alliance (1880s)  - federal subtreasury offices alongside warehouses/elevators  - store crops until prices increase  -...
Effect of Panic of 1873 on Grange 
Panic of 1873: caused decline in farm prices --> membership drastically increased (esp. in S & mid-W) - middle:as membership grew, focused less on social benefits and more...
Economic Attempts of the Grange 
Business & corporations  - Mongomery Ward & Co. ~ corporation arose to fit needs of Grangers (mail-order business) - most Grange enterprises failed...
Granger Laws (1870s)
Grange ~ politically successful in Illinois, Wisconson, Iowa, & Minnesota - reglated railroad rates & storage fees  - Granger Laws ~ wanted gov't...
Farmers' Alliances 
 - alliances in the South (1877) and Midwest (1880)  - later Colored Alliance formed (1889)  - not reform-oriented ~ concerned about local issues 1889:...
People's Party (Populists)
 - emerged in early 1890s through Farmer's Alliances  - attempted to unite disconnected farmers & improve their economic conditions  - anti-Semetic Goals:  -...
Reasons the Populist Party failed
 - can't agree on political strategy - racism  - dramatic increase in urban population (New Immigrants) --> higher prices for agricultural products  -...
Successes/Failures of the Populist Party
Successes: - attracted working class, immigrants, farmers, miners, and protestants  - commercialized/mechanized farms Failures:  - never attracted significant...
Causes of the Panic of 1893 
Immediate Cause:  - collapse of stock market (Phildelphia & Reading Railroad and National Cordage Company declare bankruptcy)Long-Term Causes:  -...
Reactions to the Panic of 1893
1. Coxey's Army - led by Jacob Coxey (1896) ~ led march into Washington to petition for public works programs that would give jobs to the unemployed  -...
Causes of Political Crisis in the 1890s 
 - Grover Cleveland (Democrat) wins again in election of 1892  - Panic of 1893  - Silver Question - Election of 1896 
Silver Question
 - what's the basis of the dollar?  - at the time, it was gold/silver ~ people could exchange money for these metals (bimetallism) - 1870s: price of silver...
Crime of '73
1873: Congress prohibits coinage of silver (Crime of '73) - less inflation --> farmers upset (harder to repay debt) 
Sherman Silver Purchase Act (1890)
 - gov't would purchase silver & pay it back in gold  - gold reserves decreasing (Cleveland blames Silver Purchase Act) --> repealed act after split in the Democratic...
Election of 1896
Republicans: William McKinley - high tariff Democrats: William Jennings Bryan - split between free silver and gold people  - most (S & W)...
McKinley's presidency
 - more calm, greater prosperity --> people at ease  - all Republicans agree on higher tariffs --> Dingley Tariff (highest rates in history)  -...


Upgrade and get a lot more done!
Upgrade