APUSH Chapter 19

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APUSH Chapter 19

Imperialism 

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Party Loyalty: Regionalism
 
Democrats: South ("Solid South")Republicans: North
Party Loyalty: Religion/Ethics 
 
Democrats:  - Catholic  - support immigration & the poor (felt that Republicans were assaulting their people & culture)
Republicans:  - N. Protestants - want to restrict immigration - supported the middle class  - favored temperance legislation
Leaning to the "Right"
 
Conservative (Republicans)
Leaning to the "Left"
 
Liberal (Democrats)
Reasons for Party Loyalty
 
 - high voter turnout (78%) - party identification (more cultural than economic)
Stalwarts v. Half-Breeds 
 
 - competed against one another for control of the Republican party --> threatened to split the party  - interested in augmenting patronage  - Pres. Hayes tried to please both --> failed  - nominate James Garfield (half-breed) as pres and Chester Arthur (stalwart) as VP 
Stalwarts 
 
 - led by Roscoe Conkling (NY) - favored traditional, professional machine politics  - Arthur succeeds Garfield after his assassination --> keeps most of his appointments & supports civil service reforms 
Half-Breeds 
 
 - led by James G. Blaine (Maine) - favored reform  - Garfield elected w/ a stalwart but defied stalwarts in his appointments/civil service reforms --> later assassinated by  crazed stalwart 
Pendleton Act (1883) 
 
 - sparked by assassination of Garfield  - first nat'l civil service measure  - required some federal jobs to be filled by competitive written examinations rather than by patronage  - at first, few offices fell under civil services, but by mid-20th century, most federal employees were civil servants 
Mugwumps 
 
 - significant in the election of 1884 - some believed Republican candidate (James G. Blaine) was corrupt --> left for the Democratic party and dubbed "mugwumps" - helped to seal Cleveland's victory 
Interstate Commerce Act of 1887
 
 - passed despite Cleveland's disapproval  - designed to curb railroads  - first large-scale legislation passed by fed. gov't to regulate corporations in the interest of society ~ set the precedent for future regulatory commissions in the 20th century  - prohibited rebates & pools; required railroads to publish their rates openly  - forbade unfair discrimination against shippers and charging more for short hauls than long ones  - set up the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) to enforce and administer the act 
 - positive result: provided an orderly forum where competing business interests would be resolved in peaceful ways 
Conflicts with Election of 1888
 
 - tariff ("McKinley Tariff") ** - trusts  - railroad 
Election of 1888: McKinley tariff
 
Republicans: favored a high tariff  - stimulated American industry  - benefited all Americans (wealth will "trickle down" to the lower classes)  - wanted to support big businesses --> refuse to reduce the tariff 
Democrats: favored a low tariff  - i.e. Cleveland  - wanted lower prices for consumers and a less monopolistic system 
 - primary issue in the election of 1888  - hurts the consumer (lack of competition --> easier for business to raise prices) - Republicans interpreted victories in the House & Senate as a mandate for the tariff --> tariffs increased 
Election of 1888: Railroads 
 
 - also a major problem during Cleveland's presidential term 
Democrats: wanted more control over railroad  - court case: US v. E.C. Knight 
US v. E.C. Knight 
 
 - 98% of manufacting of refined sugar ~ from E.C. Knight  - effort to gov't to apply Sherman Anti-Trust Act --> Supreme Court refused b/c sugar was not involved in interstate industry 
Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1890)
 
 - passed by Congress b/c of groing popular demand  - mid-1880s: 15 western/southern states made laws prohibiting combinations that restrained competition, but corporations just incorporated states where it was still legal (i.e. NJ, Delaware) - anti-trust supporters believed that they needed nat'l gov't support to succeed  - most congressmen saw ct as symbolic (a measure to fend off public criticism, but not likely to have an impact)
Munn v. Illinois (1877)
 
 - supreme court case w/ corporate rates & agriculture  - allowed states to regulate certain businesses within their borders, including railroads (gave Illinois more freedom to use Granger laws) - regarded as a milestone in the growth of federal gov't regulation  - declared that business interests (private property) used for public god should be regulated by the gov't 
Wabash decision (1886)
 
 - weakened the power of Munn v. Illinois  - ruled one of the Granger laws in Illinois as unconstitutional ~ infringed on power of Congress to regulate interstate commerce  - limited power of states to regulate commerce even in their own boundaries 
The Grange (1867)
 
 - first major farm organization  - Oliver H. Kelly touring the south after Civ. War --> appalled by isolation & drabness of rural life --> left gov't (1867) and founded National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry ~ created a network of local organizations 
Cooperatives for consumers & producers: - grain elevator, dairies (to store/process products) - sought to end monopolistic railroad practices  - tried to manufacture harvesting machinery (failed)


 - Independence Day 1873 = "The Farmers' Declaration of Independence" ~ vowed farners would use all lawful & peaceful means to free themselves from tyranny of monopolies 
Reasons for Agrarian Malaise 
 
Belief that:  - the railroads were using discriminatory rates to exploit farmers  - big business used high tariffs to exploit farmers  - a deflationary monetary policy based on gold hurt farmers  - corporations charged exorbitant prices for fertilizers and farm machinery 
Sub-treasuries 
 
 - major demand of Southern Alliance (1880s)  - federal subtreasury offices alongside warehouses/elevators  - store crops until prices increase  - subtreasury loans ~ 80% of the value of the crop  - AAA ~ to buy excess crops 
Effect of Panic of 1873 on Grange 
 
Panic of 1873: caused decline in farm prices --> membership drastically increased (esp. in S & mid-W) - middle:as membership grew, focused less on social benefits and more on economic profits of organization       - organized marketing cooperatives to allow farmers to circumvent hated middlemen - looking to supplant/reject laissez faire (threatens capitalism)
Economic Attempts of the Grange 
 
Business & corporations  - Mongomery Ward & Co. ~ corporation arose to fit needs of Grangers (mail-order business) - most Grange enterprises failed b/c inexperience of operators & opposition to middlemen whose business they were challenging
Worked to elect state leg. pledged to the program (sometimes under the independence "Anti-Monopoly" or "Reform" ~ peak gained control of congresses of most midwest states  - goal: subject railroads to gov't controls 
Granger Laws (1870s)
 
Grange ~ politically successful in Illinois, Wisconson, Iowa, & Minnesota - reglated railroad rates & storage fees  - Granger Laws ~ wanted gov't convol over big business to benefit people  - legislation proposed by the Grangers to pass regulatory legislation over the railroads - many states imposed strict regulations on railroad rates & practices but soon destroyed by courts 
Farmers' Alliances 
 
 - alliances in the South (1877) and Midwest (1880)  - later Colored Alliance formed (1889) 
 - not reform-oriented ~ concerned about local issues 1889: 3 Alliances met  - demanded free silver and subtreasury plan  - many supported/joined Knights of Labor 
Changes:  - est. stores, banks, processing plants, and other facilities  - build up society in which economic competition might give way to cooperation  - mutual neighborly responsibility that would enable farmers to resist oppressive outside forces
 - didn't work b/c of strong market forces against them  - Southern and Northwestern Alliances agree to merger --> Ocala Demands - farmers drew encouragement from successes of candidates from Alliances to form their own party (Omaha, Nebraska --> People's Party)
People's Party (Populists)
 
 - emerged in early 1890s through Farmer's Alliances  - attempted to unite disconnected farmers & improve their economic conditions  - anti-Semetic 
Goals:  - increase $$ supply with the free & unlimited coinage of solver & gold @ the legal ratio of 16 to 1  - use the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 to regulate railroads and prevent discrimination against small customers  - organize cooperative marketing societies  - support candidacy of William Jennings Bryan in the election of 1896
Role of Women: - full voting rights - temperance - Mary E. Lease - populist orator
nominate James Weaver in election of 1892 
Reasons the Populist Party failed
 
 - can't agree on political strategy - racism  - dramatic increase in urban population (New Immigrants) --> higher prices for agricultural products  - discovery of gold in Yukon --> eased farmers' access to credit  - Democratic party absorbed many Populist programs  - William Jennings Bryan lost election of 1896 to William McKinley and the Republicans 
Successes/Failures of the Populist Party
 
Successes: - attracted working class, immigrants, farmers, miners, and protestants  - commercialized/mechanized farms 
Failures:  - never attracted significant labor support b/c economic interests of laborers and farmers were at odds - exception: attracted miners in the Rocky mountain states ~ "free silver" 
Causes of the Panic of 1893 
 
Immediate Cause:  - collapse of stock market (Phildelphia & Reading Railroad and National Cordage Company declare bankruptcy)
Long-Term Causes:  - European depression --> foreign investors called in $$ - depressed prices of farmers --> decreased purchasing power  - railroads began to decline 
** Showed interdependence of regions of US 
Reactions to the Panic of 1893
 
1. Coxey's Army - led by Jacob Coxey (1896) ~ led march into Washington to petition for public works programs that would give jobs to the unemployed  - wanted bank notes & inflation 
2. Union unrest during the decade (i.e. Homestead & Pullman Strikes)
Causes of Political Crisis in the 1890s 
 
 - Grover Cleveland (Democrat) wins again in election of 1892  - Panic of 1893  - Silver Question - Election of 1896 
Silver Question
 
 - what's the basis of the dollar?  - at the time, it was gold/silver ~ people could exchange money for these metals (bimetallism) - 1870s: price of silver higher than gov't exchange rate (more profitable than the 16 to 1 gov't ratio; owners want more $ --> dont sell it to gov't)
2 main groups of support:      1.) Silver owners who could not make more $$ from the gov't      2.) Discontented farmers who wanted an inflation of currency to rise price of products 
Crime of '73
 
1873: Congress prohibits coinage of silver (Crime of '73) - less inflation --> farmers upset (harder to repay debt) 
Sherman Silver Purchase Act (1890)
 
 - gov't would purchase silver & pay it back in gold  - gold reserves decreasing (Cleveland blames Silver Purchase Act) --> repealed act after split in the Democratic party (south v. east) - gold supporters saw it as essential to survival of the nation - silver supporters saw it as "free silver" and freedom from oppression of gold William H. Harvey's Coin Financial School
Election of 1896
 
Republicans: William McKinley - high tariff 
Democrats: William Jennings Bryan - split between free silver and gold people  - most (S & W) want low tariff, strict control, income tax, and free silver  - minority of E want free silver (only w/ foreign approval) - Bryan ~ Cross of Gold speech propels convention to vote for pro-silver platform  - fusion of Democrats & Populists (pro-silver)
McKinley wins --> end of Populist party (put all their support behind Bryan)
McKinley's presidency
 
 - more calm, greater prosperity --> people at ease  - all Republicans agree on higher tariffs --> Dingley Tariff (highest rates in history)  - silver issue: sent delegates to Europe to seek agreement but none was reached  - passed Currency Act/Gold Standard Act of 1900 to confirm commitment to gold 
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