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Side ASide B
Invented the Cotton Gin
What was the Preemption Act of 1830?
squatters could stake out land ahead of surveyors (expansion westward
New Improvements in transportation
New Roads - Turnpikes and national roadRiver Transportation - Steamboats, flatboats and canals
Robert Fulton and Robert Livingston
Where did railroads start?
3 benefits of railroads to America
- Speed- Cheaper- Encouraged westward settlement
Why were railroads dangerous?
They had poor construction and accidents were common
How were railroads financed?
- Mostly by private ventures- States sometimes built their own lines/granted tax breaks- Post office
Were railroads internal or external improvements?
Name 3 technological improvements
- Telegraph- Vulcanized Rubber- Sewing machine
Samuel B. Morse
Start of industrialization
- Handicraft system- Britain's Rule- Francis Cabot Lowell/Lowell System- Urbanization
Francis Cabot Lowell
(1813) First factory with spinning and waving under the same roof with every process mechanized
True or false?
Immigration picked up after the war if 1812?
Immigration ethnic groups
- Irish, Germans, Chinese, British, Scandinavians
Nativist reactions to immigration
- Anti-Immigration stand- Examples of violence- Nativist organizations - The American Party - Know Nothings
4 reasons for the anti-immigration stand
- New languages and customs- Religious fears- German political radicalism- Irish voting blocs
Labor OrganizationsWhat was created in efforts to create national organizations?
National Trades Union
Urban labor politics
- Working man's parties- locofocos
3 impacts of the labor parties
- 10 hour workday- Measures to ensure payment- Abolition of monopolies
What was Deism?
God created the earth and left it to it's own fate.Creates earth --> DoneRejected the literal truth of the bible and questioned the divinity of Jesus
Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin
Examples of Rational Religion
- Unitarianism- Universalism
What was Unitarianism?
Inherent goodness of humankind. Human reason and conscience was more important that creeds and confession.
In what kind of churches was Unitarianism popular?
Mass congregational churches
What was Universalism?
Salvation of all men and women. Not just the predestinedGod was too good to damn any man
Who started the Mormon church?
Joseph Smith Jr.
3 beliefs of the church
- Book of Mormon was the lost section of the Bible- Ancient Hebrews inhabited the New World and Jesus had made an appearance to them- Predicts the second coming of Christ
Ralph Waldo Emerson wrote...
5 American Literature
- Nathaniel Hawthorne- Edgar Allen Poe- Emily Dickinson- Herman Melville- Walt Whitman
What are the 3 things that Horace Mann promoted?
- Statewide school systems- Training teachers- 6 month school year minimum
Troy Female Seminary
First focus on academics
Who was Elizabeth Blackwell?
The first female to graduate from medical school
What were arguments for temperance?
- Religious- Health effects- Economy- The suffering of innocents
What was the prison reform?
Rehabilitation rather than punishment
Who fought for better conditions for the mentally ill?
Crusade for Women's rights
- Catherine Beecher (The cult of domesticity)- Lucretia Mott- Elizabeth Cady Stanton- Seneca Falls Convention- Declaration of Rights and Sentiments
What were the 4 Utopian societies?
- Shaker- Oneida- New Harmony- Brooks Farm
Known for their fits and visionsPreached celibacy
With conversion came perfection"Complex marriage"
Designed to be a model communitySplit over different plans for the town
High thinking and plain livingEmerson and HawthorneBurned down
4 myths of the old south
- Gone with the wind- happy slaves- lavish lifestyle- easy lives
Reality of the south
Distinct from the north- More unity than the north- the weather- biracial population- highly native population- "gentile lifestyle"- agrarian nature
What did Edmund Ruffin do?
Fertilizers, crop rotation, drainage and good plowing could revitalize the declining soil of his native state.
The 3 reasons for the south's industrial lag
- Traditional myths- Prestige of land owning- Profitability of slaves
OverseersYeoman farmersLand ownershipGeneral lifestyle
The "redneck" culture
Poor whites"Southern Hospitality"Mountain People
- David Walker- Williams Lloyd Garrison