APES Final Flash Cards

198 cards

AP Environmental Science FinalSemester 1


 
  
Created Dec 26, 2009
by
alysonimani

 

 
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1
ecology
 
biological science that studies organisms (living things)
2
species
 
group of organisms with distinctive traits
3
ecosystem
 
set of organisms interacting w/ one another and w/ either environ. w/in defined area
4
sustainability
 
ability of the earth's natural systems & human cultural systems & economies to survive...
5
natural capital
 
natural resources/services that keep life alive/support our econs.
6
natural services
 
functions of nature which support life and human economies
7
nutrient cycling
 
circulation of chems. necessary for life from environ. thru organisms back to environ.
8
solar capital
 
energy from sun
9
environmentally sustainable society
 
one that meets current/future bsaic resource needs in a just manner w/o compromising future...
10
natural income
 
renewable resources provides by natural capital
11
gross domestic product (GDP)
 
annual market value of all goods/services produced by all firms/orgs.
12
per capita GDP
 
GDP divided by total pop. at midyear
13
per capita GDP PPP
 
measure of amount of goods/services a country's average citizen could by in U.S.
14
economic development
 
goal of using economic growth to improve living standards
15
developed countries
 
1.2 billion people (U.S., Canada, Japan, Europe)
16
developing countries
 
5.5 billion people (Africa, Asia, Latin America)
17
resource
 
anything obtained by environ. to meet our needs/wants
18
conservation
 
management of natural resources w/ goal of minimizing resource waste/sustaining supplies
19
perpetual resource
 
renewed continuously and is expected to last forever (i.e. solar energy)
20
renewable resource
 
can be replenished quickly thru natural processes as long it is not used up faster than renewed...
21
sustainable yield
 
highest rate at which a renewable resource can be used *indefinitely* w/o reducing available...
22
environmental degradation
 
exceeding sustainable yield -- supply begins to shrink
23
nonrenewable resource
 
fixed quantity in earth's crust
24
ecological footprint
 
amount of biologically productive land/water needed to supply people
25
per capita ecological footprint
 
average ecological footprint of an individual in a given country
26
point sources
 
single, identifiable sources of pollutants
27
nonpoint sources
 
dispersed and often difficult to identify
28
biodegradable pollutants
 
harmful materials that can be broken down by natural processes
29
nondegradable pollutants
 
harmful materials that natural processes cannot break down
30
pollution cleanup (output pollution control)
 
cleaning up or diluting pollutants after they've been produced
31
pollution prevention (input pollution control)
 
reduces/eliminates the production of pollutants
32
CAUSES OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS
 
population growth, unsustainable resource use, poverty, excluding environmental costs from...
33
environmental worldview
 
set of assumptions/values reflecting how you think the world works
34
environmental ethics
 
our beliefs about what is right and wrong with how we treat the environment
35
planetary management worldview
 
holds that we are separate from nature, that nature exists mainly to meet our needs/increasing...
36
stewardship worldview
 
holds that we can/should manage the earth for our benefit but that we should be the managers...
37
environmental wisdom worldview
 
holds that we are part of and totally dependent on nature and that nature exists for all species,...
38
social capital
 
making shift to more sustainable societies and economies
39
STEPS INVOLVED IN MAKING ENVIRONMENTAL DECISIONS
 
1) Identify problem 2) Gather scientific info3) Propose 1+ solutions 4) Project short-...
40
FOUR SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES OF SUSTAINABILITY
 
1) Reliance on solar energy2) Biodiversity 3) Nutrient Cycling4) Population Control
41
free enterprise
 
changes and innovations that lead to new technologies, products, and opportunities for profits
42
policies
 
set of laws/regulations gov't. enforces and the programs it funds
43
environmental policy
 
environ. laws/regulations that are developed, implemented, and enforced
44
humility principle
 
understanding of nature and how our actions affect it
45
reversibility principle
 
not taking actions that cannot be reversed if a decision turns out to be wrong=
46
precautionary principle
 
taking precautionary measures to prevent/reduce harm to environ.
47
net energy principle
 
avoiding widespread use of energy alternatives/technologies w/ low net en. yields
48
prevention principle
 
making decisions that help to prevent a problem from occurring/becoming worse
49
polluter-pays principle
 
regulations and economic tools (i.e. green taxes) to ensure that polluters bear costs of pollutants/wastes...
50
public access and participation principle
 
citizens should have open access to environ. data/right to participate in creating environ....
51
human rights principle
 
all people have a right to live in an environ. that doesn't harm their health/well-being
52
environmental justice principle
 
establishing environ. policies so no group bears unfair share of burden created by pop., environ....
53
4 PRINCIPLES TO GOVERN USE OF PUBLIC LANDS
 
1) Used primarily for protecting biodiversity, habitats, ecosystems2) No gov't. tax breaks 3)...
54
PROPOSALS TO CONGRESS TO OPEN MORE FEDERAL LANDS FOR DEVELOPMENT
 
1) Sell @ less than market value 2) Slash fed. funding for admin. 3) Cut old-growth...
55
common law
 
unwritten rules
56
Malthusians
 
calculated that pop. of England would be getting so out of control that there wouldn't be enough...
57
Cornucopians
 
life on Earth is getting better (Julian Simon)
58
frontier ethic
 
use all we want
59
sustainable ethic
 
use resources responsibly (conservationism and preservationism)
60
HUNTER-GATHERERS
 
-used resources at sustainable rate-had knowledge of natural world-lived in "harmony with nature"...
61
3 Reasons Agriculture = Bad for Health
 
1) hunter-gatherers enjoyed varied diet, while early farmers obtained food from 1+ starchy...
62
What environmental trends result from our lack of sustainability?
 
-extinction-exceeding carrying capicities
63
Examples of nonrenewable resources
 
-oil-minerals-topsoil-energy sources-genetic diversity
64
Examples of renewable resources
 
solar energy
65
Potentially renewable
 
-trees-water-air-soil fertility
66
What factors affect environmental degradation?
 
-population size-per capita consumption-technology
67
EHRLICH'S ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT EQUATION
 
total environ. impact = population x per capita consumption x technology
68
GNP Measures
 
-depletion of natural resources as positive (i.e. Brazil cuts down all forests and sells it,...
69
GNP Doesn't Measure
 
-quality of air, water, and other environ. factors-factors of resources
70
Solutions to measuring GNP
 
use environ. indicators which include costs of resource depletion, pollution, land degradation
71
Hiding harmful environmental costs from the market prices of goods and services causes all...
 
E. Causes increases in prices
72
The trickle-down effect describes how:A. Waterfalls flow during the fall seasonB. Toxic wastes...
 
D. Economic growth increases the number of jobs and helps the poor help themselves
73
Which of the following would not traditionally support an eco-economy?A. Shift taxes from wages...
 
E. Decrease subsidies for alternative fuel vehicles
74
Levying taxes on each unit of pollution discharged into the air/water is an example of:A. tradable...
 
E. subsidies for beneficial actions
75
economic system
 
social institution through which goods/services are produced, distributed, and consumed
76
human capital (human resources)
 
people's physical and mental talents, which provide labor, innovation, culture, and organization
77
manufactured capital (manufactured resources)
 
items such as machinery, equipment, and factories made from natural resources with the help...
78
high-throughput economies
 
attempt to boost economic growth by increasing flow of matter and energy resources extracted...
79
discount rate
 
estimate of a resource's future economic value compared to its present value
80
cost-benefit analysis
 
comparing estimated costs/benefits for actions
81
Genuine progress indicator equation
 
Genuine progress indicator = GDP + benefits not included in market transactions - harmful environmental...
82
green taxes
 
help include many of the harmful environmental/health costs of production and consumption in...
83
matter recycling and reuse economies
 
mimic nature by recycling and reusing most matter outputs instead of dumping them into environ.
84
Law of Conservation of Matter
 
-cannot be created nor destroyed-can change state or take place in chemical reactions-amount...
85
Environmental Effects of Mass Conservation
 
-waste products-we bury or dilute unwanted byproductsDILUTION IS NOT THE SOLUTION OF...
86
fission
 
splitting nucleus (atomic bomb)
87
fusion
 
combining 2 nuclei (sun, H-bombs)
88
First Law of Thermodynamics
 
no energy is created or destroyed in physical or chemical change
89
Second Law of Thermodynamics
 
always end up with less usable/lower-quality energy than started with
90
inductive reasoning
 
using scientific observations and measurements to arrive at a general conclusion/hypothesis
91
deductive reasoning
 
using logic to arrive at a specific conclusion 
92
paradigm shift
 
overthrowing scientific law
93
tentative/frontier science
 
not yet considered reliable. opposite = reliable science
94
natural radioactive decay
 
isotopes spontaneously emit fast-moving subatomic particles (radioactive isotopes)
95
nuclear fission
 
dense objects have nuclear change
96
nuclear fusion
 
less dense objects have nuclear change
97
feedback
 
increase or decrease change to a system
98
feedback loop
 
output of matter is fed back as input
99
NITROGEN CYCLE
 
1) Nitrogen fixation2) Conversion to ammonia3) Ammonia incorporated into proteins4) Ammonification:...
100
PHOSPHORUS CYCLE (hint: only cycle that doesn't involve air at all)
 
-needed for ATP (energy) and DNA-found in rocks (PO4- ion)-we eat it as tertiary...
101
limiting factor
 
if any one abiotic factor is in short supply, it'll limit the size of a pop. in an ecosystem...
102
Hubbard Brook Experiment
 
attempted to measure effects of deforestation on loss of water and soil nutrients from a forestConclusions: -deforestation...
103
interspecific competition
 
members of 2+ species interact to gain access to same limited resources (i.e. food, light,...
104
parasitism
 
1 organism (parasite) feeds on body of, or energy by, other organism (host), usually by living...
105
predation
 
predator feeds direction on all or part of prey
106
mutualism
 
benefits both species by providing each w/ food, shelter, or some other resource
107
commensalism
 
benefits one species but has little/no effect on the other
108
niche
 
species' way of life in a community and includes everything that affects its survival
109
competitive exclusion principle
 
no 2 species can occupy exactly the same niche
110
coevolution
 
2 species interact, changes in gene pool of one species and causes both sides to become more...
111
resource partitioning
 
some species evolve to reduce niche overlap
112
population dynamics
 
how characteristics of populations change in response to environ. conditions
113
POPULATION CHANGE EQUATION
 
(births + immigration) - (deaths + emigration)
114
age structure
 
proportions of individuals at various ages
115
biotic potential
 
capacity for pop. growth under ideal conditions
116
intrinsic rate of increase
 
rate pop. of a species would grow if it had unlimited resources
117
environmental resistance
 
combination of all factors that act to limit growth of a pop.
118
carrying capacity (K)
 
max. pop. of a given species that a particular habitat can sustain indefinitely w/o being degraded
119
logistic growth
 
rapid exponential pop. growth followed by steady decrease of pop. growth until pop. size levels...
120
r-selected species
 
small offspring and given little/no parenting or protection
121
k-selected species
 
reproduce later in life and have small number of offspring w/ long life spans
122
top-down population regulation
 
pop. regulated thru predation
123
bottom-up population regulation
 
size of predator/prey controlled by scarcity of 1+ resources
124
primary succession
 
ecosystem starts from scratch (no life to begin with)
125
secondary succession
 
ecosystem doesn't start from scratch (already has est. community)
126
tipping point
 
where any additional stress can cause the system to change in an abrupt and irreversible way...
127
What are the four trophic levels?
 
-producers (plants)-primary consumers (herbivores)-secondary consumers (carnivores)-tertiary...
128
Gross primary productivity (GPP)
 
amount of energy captured thru photosynthesis
129
succession
 
gradual change in an area as one biotic community replaces another
130
Why does one biotic community replaces another?
 
b/c it is going toward a more mature community
131
cell theory
 
idea that all living things are composed of cells
132
eukaryotic cell
 
surrounded by a membrane and has a distinct nucleus
133
prokaryotic cell
 
surrounded by membrane, but has no distinct nucleus and no other internal parts
134
community
 
all populations of diff. species that live in a particular place
135
biosphere
 
all parts of earth's air, water, and soil where life is found
136
atmosphere
 
thin envelope of gases surrounding earth's surface
137
troposphere
 
contains majority of air we breathe
138
greenhouse gases
 
trap heat and thus warm lower atmosphere
139
stratosphere
 
world's sunscreen--filters out most of sun's harmful UV raysalso where ozone is most abundant
140
hydrosphere
 
consists of all water on or near earth's surface
141
geosphere
 
core, mantle, crust
142
biomes
 
large regions such as forests, deserts, grasslands, w/ distinct climates and certain species...
143
THREE FACTORS THAT SUSTAIN LIFE ON EARTH
 
1) way of flow of high-quality energy (can't be recycled)2) cycling of matter/nutrients (can...
144
LIMITING FACTOR PRINCIPLE
 
too much or too little of any abiotic factor can limit or prevent growth of a population, even...
145
trophic level
 
all organisms that are the same # of energy transfers away from the original source of energy
146
anaerobic respiration/fermentation
 
organisms get energy they need by breaking down glucose (or other organic compounds) in ABSENCE...
147
food web
 
interconnected food chains
148
biomass
 
dry weight of all organic matter contained in its organisms
149
ecological efficiency
 
% of all usable chemical energy transferred as biomass from 1 trophic level to the next --...
150
Net primary productivity (NPP)
 
rate @ which an ecosystem's producers (usually plants) convert solar energy into chemical energy...
151
biogeochemical cycles/nutrient cycles
 
elements and compounds that make up nutrients that move continually through air, water, soil,...
152
H2O cycle
 
collects, purifies, and distributes earth's fixed supply of H2O1) precipitation2)...
153
transpiration
 
approx. 90% of H2O that reaches atmosphere evaporates from surfaces of plants
154
Carbon cycle
 
1) carbon removed from atmosphere2) carbon goes into plants3) animals eat plants4) carbon from...
155
nitrogen cycle
 
1) nitrogen fixation** (N2 + 3H2 = 2NH3) in soil2)...
156
PHOTOSYNTHESIS EQUATION
 
6CO2 + 6H2O ---> C6H12O6 + 6CO2
157
generalist
 
modifies what it eats
158
specialist
 
1 type of food it can live on (better when ecosystem is stable)
159
foundation species
 
basis of whole ecosystem
160
keystone species
 
if removed, whole ecosystem falls
161
indicator species
 
not good-- it's always first to die b/c they need something specific
162
endemic species
 
native and ONLY in that area
163
invasive species
 
didn't coevolve -- invades ecosystem
164
phosphorus cycle
 
1) sulfur enters atmosphere from natural sources2) H2S is released from active volcanoes...
165
Why is earth hotter at the equator than at the poles?
 
b/c the sunlight is more direct at equator
166
axis tilt
 
23.5 degreesSEASONS
167
hadley cell
 
convection cell which moves moisture from equator to tropics and createst desert
168
EFFECTS OF WATER (WEATHER)
 
-has high heat capacity-absorbs heat during day w/ little change of temp.- gives off heat @...
169
Coriolis effect
 
rotation of Earth, which causes deflection of wind
170
polar easterlies
 
constant loop going from east
171
prevailing westerlies
 
constant loop going from west
172
horse latitudes
 
sit still
173
doldrums
 
intertropical convergence zone (low pressure and little wind)
174
El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO)
 
winds are weak; weather is  hot and wet
175
La Nina
 
cold water, dry heat
176
What are three major climatic factors?
 
temperature, rainfall, sunlight
177
What are the 8 types of biomes?
 
1) tundra2) taiga3) temperate forest4) deciduous forest5) grassland6) chaparral7) desert8)...
178
Characteristics of TUNDRA
 
-temp: very cold winters with short, warm summers-water: frozen desert, often >15 in./year-sunlight:...
179
Characteristics of TAIGA(northern coniferous forest)
 
-temp: very cold winters, warm in spring and summer-water: frozen for much of the year. summers...
180
Characteristics of TEMPERATE DECIDUOUS FOREST
 
-temp: cool winters, snow; warmer spring and summer-water: plentiful w/ lots of rain in summer-sun:...
181
Characteristics of GRASSLAND(savanna, plain)
 
-temp: warm-hot summers, cold winners-water: rainy, but often dry and vulnerable to fires-sun:...
182
Characteristic of DESERT
 
-temp: very hot summers, cold winters-water: DEFINING VARIABLE-sun: plentiful, but bad given...
183
Characteristics of CHAPARRAL(brush, sagebrush)
 
-temp: mild winters, warm-hot summers-water: light rain in winter, prolonged drought in summer-sun:...
184
Characteristics of TROPICAL RAINFOREST
 
-temp: warm all year, little variation b/w summer and winter-water: bountiful at all times,...
185
What happens when some solar radiation is reflected back into space?
 
albedo
186
What are the greenhouse gases?
 
water vaporcarbon dioxidemethanenitrous oxideCFC's (not natural source)
187
tropopause
 
change b/w troposphere and atmosphere
188
stratopause
 
change b/w atmosphere and stratosphere
189
NATURAL FORMATION AND DESTRUCTION OF OZONE
 
solar formation: 1)   O2 +UV light ---> 2O  ...
190
Why are CFC's good?
 
-"miracle chemical"-- can last forever-very stable-- don't burn or react w/ other chemicals-refrigerant-"freon"-low...
191
Why are CFC's bad?
 
-reactive in upper atmosphere
192
Why don't most populations change much from year to year?
 
b/c they reach a carrying capacity as a result of environ. resistance
193
What 2 events increased human population growth rates?
 
Agricultural Revolution and Industrial Revolution
194
birth rate
 
# of live births per 1,000 people in 1 yearto calculate: (birth rate - death rate) / 10
195
replacement-level fertility
 
# of children a woman needs to replace her and her partner
196
Why does population continue to grow after reaching replacement rate?
 
if a large portion of population is under 15, there are a lot of future mothers; even if each...
197
What are the 3 categories of population pyramids?
 
0-14 years old15-44 years old45+ years old
198
EHRLICH'S ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT EQUATION
 
total env. impact = pop. x per capita consumption x technology


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