APES Chapter 9 Study Guide And Vocab

Ikjfxbkihfx Types Of Soil
Created Apr 30, 2012
by iarbolado
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Side ASide B
Gully erosion
cuts deeply into soil,leaving large gullies that  expand as erosion proceeds
sheet erosion
water flows in thin sheets over broad surfaces washing topsoil...
rill erosion
water runs along small furrow deepening them into rills.
splash erosion
raindrops dislodge soil particles that fill in gaps between...
agriculture
The practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising...
soil
A complex plant-supporting system consisting of disintegrated...
horizon 
a distinct layer of soil
a horizon
Topsoil. Made of inorganic/organic matter/humus mixed in. Takes...
b horizon
minerals and organic matter leach from e horizon into b horizon....
c horizon
Mainly of weathered parent material unaltered/slightly altered...
e horizon
minerals and organic matter leach out of e horizon, below a...
o horizon
Uppermost layer.  Mostly of organic matter deposited by organisms.
r horizon
made of pure parent material. Bottommost layer. 
Order of soil horizons
O A E B C R. 
Clay
ediment consisting of particles less than 0.002 mm in diameter....
loam
soil with a relatively even mixture of clay, silt, and sand-sized...
sand
sediment consisting of particles 0.005-2.0 mm in diameter. 
silt
same as sand. 
bedrock
The continuous mass of solid rock that makes up Earth’s crust. 
cation exchange
Process which plant’s roots donate hydrogen ions to the...
conservation district
one of many county-based entities created by the soil conservation...
contour farming
The practice of plowing furrows sideways across a hillside,...
terracing
The cutting of level platforms into steep hillsides to contain...
crop rotation
The practice of alternating the kind of crop grown in a particular...
cropland
land that humans use to raise plants for food and fiber. One...
desertification
A loss of more than 10% of a land’s productivity due to erosion,...
dust bowl
an area that looses huge amounts of topsoil to wind erosion...
erosion
the removal of material from one place and its transport...
fertilizer
A substance that promotes plant growth by supplying essential...
inorganic fertilizer
 fertilizer that consists of mined or synthetically manufactured...
organic fertilizer
a fertilizer made up of natural materials (remains/wastes of...
green revolution
an intensification of the industrialization of agriculture...
industrialized agriculture
a form of agriculture that uses large-scale mechanization and...
traditional agriculture
biologically powered agriculture, in which human and animal...
subsistence agriculture
farming families produce food for themselves. Intensive traditional...
intercropping
planting different types of crops in alternating bands or other...
irrigation
the artificial provision of water to support agriculture. Can...
leaching
the process by which solid materials such as minerals are dissolved in a liquid, usually water,...
monoculture
the uniform planting of a single crop over a large area. Characterizes...
overgrazing
the consumption by too many animals of plant cover, preventing...
parent material
the base geological material in a particular location. Includes...
rangeland
or pasture, land used for grazing livestock. One of the places...
salinization
the buildup of salts in surface soil layers. Irrigation contributes...
shelterbelt
A row of trees or other tall perennial plants that are planted...
topsoil
Portion of soil most nutritious for plants and most direct importance...
waterlogging
The saturation of soil by water in which the water table is...
weathering
the physical, chemical, and biological processes that break...
conservation reserve program
in 1985, paid farmers...
Low-Input Sustainable Agriculture Program
provides funding for individual farmers to develop and practice sustainable...
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)-
Internationally, the U.S. promotes soil conservation and sustainable agriculture...
Farmer-Centered Agricultural Resource Management Program (FAR)- 
from the FAO’s. it supports innovative approaches to resource...


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