APES Chapter 9 Study Guide And Vocab

Ikjfxbkihfx Types Of Soil

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Side ASide B
Gully erosion
cuts deeply into soil,leaving large gullies that  expand as erosion proceeds
sheet erosion
water flows in thin sheets over broad surfaces washing topsoil away in uniform layers. 
rill erosion
water runs along small furrow deepening them into rills.
splash erosion
raindrops dislodge soil particles that fill in gaps between clumps, decreasing the soil’s ability to absorb water. 
The practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock for human use and consumption. 
A complex plant-supporting system consisting of disintegrated rock, organic matter, air, water, nutrients, and microorganisms. A renewable source that...
a distinct layer of soil
a horizon
Topsoil. Made of inorganic/organic matter/humus mixed in. Takes its loose texture dark coloration and strong water holding capacity from Its humus content....
b horizon
minerals and organic matter leach from e horizon into b horizon. This is subsoil, where they accumulate. Below e horizon.     
c horizon
Mainly of weathered parent material unaltered/slightly altered by the processes of soil 
e horizon
minerals and organic matter leach out of e horizon, below a horizon.
o horizon
Uppermost layer.  Mostly of organic matter deposited by organisms.
r horizon
made of pure parent material. Bottommost layer. 
Order of soil horizons
O A E B C R. 
ediment consisting of particles less than 0.002 mm in diameter. Small particles, harder for water to pass through, slowing infiltration and reducing...
soil with a relatively even mixture of clay, silt, and sand-sized particles.
sediment consisting of particles 0.005-2.0 mm in diameter. 
same as sand. 
The continuous mass of solid rock that makes up Earth’s crust. 
cation exchange
Process which plant’s roots donate hydrogen ions to the soil in exchange for cations (positively charged ions) such as those of calcium magnesium,...
conservation district
one of many county-based entities created by the soil conservation service to promote practices that conserve soil.
contour farming
The practice of plowing furrows sideways across a hillside, perpendicular to its slope, to help prevent the formation of rills and gullies. The technique...
The cutting of level platforms into steep hillsides to contain water from irrigation and precipitation. Transforms slopes into series of steps like a...
crop rotation
The practice of alternating the kind of crop grown in a particular field from one season or year to the next. It returns nutrients to the soil, break...
land that humans use to raise plants for food and fiber. One of the lands where we obtain most of our food and fiber from. 
A loss of more than 10% of a land’s productivity due to erosion, soil compaction, forest removal, overgrazing, drought, salinization, climate change,...
dust bowl
an area that looses huge amounts of topsoil to wind erosion as a result of drought and or human impact, first used to name the region in the North American...
the removal of material from one place and its transport to another by the action of wind or water.
A substance that promotes plant growth by supplying essential nutrients such as nitrogen or phosphorus. Manure may introduce excess phosphorus that can...
inorganic fertilizer
 fertilizer that consists of mined or synthetically manufactured mineral supplements. Are more susceptible than organic fertilizers to leaching...
organic fertilizer
a fertilizer made up of natural materials (remains/wastes of organisms): animal manure, crop residues, fresh vegetation, and compost.
green revolution
an intensification of the industrialization of agriculture in the DEVELOPING world in the later half of the 20th century that has dramatically increased...
industrialized agriculture
a form of agriculture that uses large-scale mechanization and fossil-fuel combustion, enabling farmers to replace horses and oxen with faster and more...
traditional agriculture
biologically powered agriculture, in which human and animal muscle power, along with hand tools and simple machines, perform the work of cultivating,...
subsistence agriculture
farming families produce food for themselves. Intensive traditional agriculture, produce excess food to sell at markets. No use of fossil fuels. 
planting different types of crops in alternating bands or other spatially mixed arrangements. Helps slow erosion by providing more ground cover and reduces...
the artificial provision of water to support agriculture. Can lead to waterlogging and salinization. 
the process by which solid materials such as minerals are dissolved in a liquid, usually water, and transported to another location. 
the uniform planting of a single crop over a large area. Characterizes industrialized agriculture.
the consumption by too many animals of plant cover, preventing (impeding) plant regrowth and the replacement of biomass. Can cause a problem of damaging...
parent material
the base geological material in a particular location. Includes lava/volcanic ash. Rock or sediment deposited by glaciers, wind blown dunes and sediments...
or pasture, land used for grazing livestock. One of the places where we get most of our food and fiber, like croplands. 
the buildup of salts in surface soil layers. Irrigation contributes to this because the water added to the soil already has dissolved salts, so its just...
A row of trees or other tall perennial plants that are planted along the edges of farm fields to break the wind and thereby minimize wind erosion. Combines...
Portion of soil most nutritious for plants and most direct importance to ecosystems and to agriculture. Also known as the A-horizon. 
The saturation of soil by water in which the water table is raised to the point that water bathes plant roots. It deprives roots of access to gases,...
the physical, chemical, and biological processes that break down rocks and minerals turning large particles into smaller particles. Physical or mechanical...
conservation reserve program
in 1985, paid farmers to stop cultivating (preparing/using) highly erodible cropland and instead place it...
Low-Input Sustainable Agriculture Program
provides funding for individual farmers to develop and practice sustainable agriculture. 
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)-
Internationally, the U.S. promotes soil conservation and sustainable agriculture through this. 
Farmer-Centered Agricultural Resource Management Program (FAR)- 
from the FAO’s. it supports innovative approaches to resource management and sustainable agriculture in China, Thailand, Vietnam, etc. It studies agricultural...

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