AP US History - Chapter 29 -wilsonian Progressivism 1912-1916

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Woodrow Wilson

28th Pres.
Democratic candidate 1912 election
from south, President of Princeton, Gov of NJ - didn't back down to political bosses
Intellectual - didn't like stupid senators, great speaker, most comfortable with academics, stubborn, pushed for social reform

Herbert Croly
Wrote The Promise of American Life (1910}inspired Roosevelt’s New Nationalism stated
government should control the bad trusts, leaving the good trusts alone and free to operate.

Eugene V. Debs
Socialist Eugene V. Debs racked up over 900,000 popular votes

Arsene Pujo
chaired House committee which traced the tentacles of the “moneymonster” into the hidden vaults of American banking and business.
Victoriano Huerta
full-blooded Indian General - installed as President of Mexico after 1913 revolt...Wilson refused to recognize him, allowed arms to go to Huerta's rivals (Carranza & Pancho Villa)
New Nationalism
Teddy Roosevelt's platform: Government should control bad trusts, federal regulatory agencies, also supported broad social programs and female suffrage
New Freedom
Wilson's Platform - many progressive reforms. Strong anti-trust banking reform, tariff reduction
1912 Election

Taft (3rd)- Republican, Roosevelt(2n) - Progressive, Wislon Democrat, Debbs- Socialist
Wilson Won - even though he didn't have majoriry of popular vote. first election that gave voters choice over political & economic principles. Democrats controlled Congress Progressive ideas ultimate winner
Wilson's philosophies

believed in public if they were properly educated, didn't like US interference in other countries - believed they should determine their own future
Underwood Tariff
substantially reduced import fees
and enacted a graduated income tax
Louis Brandeis
1st Jewish American Supreme Court Justice
William Taft
The only U.S. president to be appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, when he was nominated in

Federal Reserve Act
created Federal Reserve Board,
had the power to issue paper money (“Federal Reserve Notes”). .. this solved the problem with inelastic currency. Gov't cvould issue paper money when needed to increase amount of in circulation
Clayton Anti-Trust Act

helped labor -exempted labor unions from being called trusts... now legal to strike.
Union leader Samuel Gompers called it Magna Carter of labor
Wilsonian policies
Federal Farm Loan Act of 1916, Warehouse Act of 1916, highway construction, labor reguations (outlaw cat of 9 tails), Workingman's compensation Act, restricitons on child labor. Everyne except blacks benefitted - Wilson pushed for more segreation
Wilsonian foreign policy

didn't like agressive foreign policy, declared war on Dollar Diplomacy. Forced to get involved when Haitians revolted - sent Marines in to protect American lives & property
Sent marines to Dominican Republic to stop riots
Bought Virgin Islands from Denmark, got involved with Mexican politics
Jones Act in 1916,
granted full territorial status to the Philippines and promised independence as soon as a stable
government could be established.
General John J. Pershing .
sent by Wilson to capture Villa, he
got deep into Mexico, clashed with Carranza’s and
Villa’s different forces, but didn’t catch Villa

Pancho Villa
combination bandit/freedom fighter, murdered 16 Americans in January of 1916 in Mexico and then
killed 19 more a month later in New Mexico.
Venustiano Carranza
President of Mexico after Huerta, resented US interference in Mexico (trying to get rid of Huerta )which almost erupted in battle but was prevented by mediation offer from Argentina, Brazil & Chile
began summer of 1914 - heir to Austria-Hungary throne assasinated in Sarajevo, chain of events Central powers vs Allies
Central Powers

Germany, Austria-Hungary,
later Turkey & Bulgaria
Allied Powers (Allies)

France.Great Britain, (Ireland), Russia,
later Japan & Italy
Neutrality proclamation
issued by Wilson, urged Americans to be neutral in thought and deed, difficult because both sides lured US. Most Americans preferred to stay out of the war
Economy during WWI
British and French war orders pulled US out of recession. American banks loaned Allies 2.3 billion, Central powers protested - geography prevented trade btwn them & US
Submarines - U Boat

Germans used subs to retalitate against British blockade...said they wouldn't sink neutral shipping vessels, but mistakes could happen. Wilson warned he would hold Germans Strictly accountable for any attacks on Americans.
British passenger liner, sunk by Germans killed 1,198 passengers (128 Americans) boat was carrying ammunition. Some Americans..not all wanted revenge against Germany. Wilson didn't want to enter the war
Arabic, Sussex
British and French passenger ships sunk by Germans, Wilson told Germans he would break off relations with German if they didn't stop sinking ships.
Bull Moose Party
Progressive party died when Teddy Roosevelt dy refused to run because he didn't want to split the vote again
Election of 1916

Wilson wins 2nd term - slogan "he kept us out of war" . California won the race for Wilson
(against Charles Evans Hughs -- called a fence straddler, changed sides depending on where he spoke)
Triple Wall of Privilege
Tarfiff, Banks & Trusts
Federal Trade Commission Act
president-appointed position investigate the activities of trusts and stop unfair trade practices such as unlawful competition, false advertising, mislabeling, adulteration, & bribery.

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