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AP Psych Ch. 8


Learning Voca B
  
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Fixed-interval schedule
 
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed. exams.(you know two weeks prior when the test is, but you wont study until one week before.)
Variable-interval schedule
 
in operant conditioning, responses are reinforced after an unpredictable amount of time. pop quizes. (you are always studying b/c you don't know when you'll get the test.
fixed-ratio schedule
 
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses. sweaters. (you know that after you make 30 sweaters, you'll get paid.)
variable-ratio schedule
 
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses. like gambling. (you know you'll get money out, you just don't know when.)
What type of learning is skinner associated with?
 
operant conditioning.
what is true about reinforcement?
 
Learning is most rapid with continuous reinforcement, but intermitted reinforcement preduces the greatest resistance to extiction.
Cognitive process are important in both?
 
classical and operant conditioning.
the highest and most consistent rate of response is preduced by what type of schedule?
 
variable-ratio schedule
one difference between classical and operant conditioning is?
 
in classical conditioning, the responses are automatically triggered by stimuli.
in garcia and koelling's studies of taste-aversion learning, rats learned to associate what?
 
taste with sickness.
What researcher was best known for observational learning?
 
Bandura
classical conditioning experiments by rescorla and wagner demonstrate that an important factor in conditioning is what?
 
the predictability of stimuli
for most rapid conditioning, a CS should be presented when?
 
about 1 second after the US.
Where are mirror neurons found, and they are believed to be the neural basis for what?
 
found in the frontal lobe, and are the nueral basis for observational learning.
positive reinforcement
 
presentation of a desired stimulus
generalization
 
tendency for a similar stimulus to evoke a CR

negative reinforcement
 
removal of an aversive stimulus
primary reinforcer
 
an innately reinforcing stimulus
conditioned reinforcer
 
an acquired reinforcer
intrinsic motivation
 
the motivation to perform a behavior for its own sake
shaping
 
reinforcing closer and closer approximations of a behavior
spontaneous recovery
 
the reappearance of a weakened CR
punishment
 
presentation of an aversive stimulus
latent learning
 
learning that becomes apparent only after reinforcement is provided
continuous reinforcement
 
each and every response is reinforced
extrinsic motivation
 
a desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards.
Conditioning seldom occurs when a(n) ________ comes after a(n) _____.
 
CS; US

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