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Side ASide B
Legislature: amendment process (formal)
proposed by 2/3 vote in congress, than ratified by at east 3/4 of states
Legislature: Article 1, section 8
grants powers to congress, or the legislature
both parties are in agreement on an issue
Legislature: 'Christmas tree' bills
a bill that each congress man has 'hung upon' another bill. the congressman claim they won't vote for the bill unless it has their personal provision
a bill that 'hangs' on another bill, like a Christmas tree ornament.
Legislature: Discharge petition
a petition if successfully passed, that sends a bill straight to the floor, and ignores the committee phase.
Legislature: Fiscal year
the period of time congress sets the budget
Legislature: Issue network
Alliance/agreement between interest groups
Legislature: Mark up
the period a bill is reviewed by committee, got it's name because the committee literally makes revisions by 'marking up' the bill
Legislature: party polarization
when a single party is broken into 2 factions
minimum number of members present inorder to function
Legislature: role of the vice president
is the presidents successor, if he died, or resigns, tie breaker for the senate (this rarely happens) presides over the electoral college
Legislature: Senate Appropriations committee
Jurisdiction (control, authority) over all discretionary spending legislation
Executive: Executive privilege
power claimed by the president to resist being made to testify in court, or punishment by congress.
executive refusal to spend appropriated money by congress
Bureaucracy: Merit principle
someone is considered for a position in a non partisan way and considered for competence and ability
any form of helping of one to another:
Bureaucracy: sunshine laws
laws that must be carried out in the open, exposed, non secretive
Bureaucracy: sunset legislation
laws with a specified expiration date.
Judicial: Adversarial system
a system of courts where two lawyers or speakers argue on their party's behalf, and an impartial jury decides the final verdict
Judicial: 'Amicus Curiae'
someone speaks for a court and provides information, but is not working for or affiliated with either side
Judicial: Appellate jurisdiction
a higher courts power to review and change outcomes of lower courts
Judicial: class action suit
a large group presents a claim to a court
Judicial: concurring opinion
Judge's written opinion, agreeing with most of court but for different reasons
Judicial: Dissenting opinion
the opposite of concurring opinion, the Judge's written opinion disagreeing with most of the court
Judicial: Judicial Activism
Judges go beyond their Judicial Function, and into political policy making
Judicial: Judicial Restraint
Judges are encouraged to limit their own power
Judicial: Judicial Restraint
Judges of the supreme court may find actions of the other 3 branches unconstitutional
Judicial: Litmus Test
name comes from chemistry. a question a nominating official asks a candidate for high office; his answer will determine whether he is nominated
Judicial: 'per curium opinion'
anonymous ruling by a judge
Judicial: 'stare decisis'
an obligation of current judges to make rulings along the same lines as past judges
Judicial: 'writ of certiorari'
order of a higher court on a lower court
Judicial: 'writ of hebeas corpus'
a person seeks relief of an 'unlawful' detention legally
Judicial: 'writ of mandamus'
a higher court to compel a lower court or gov official to perform mandatory duties correctly