AP Human Geography Chapter 9

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AP Human Geography Chapter 9


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Human Development Index (HDI)
Indicator of level of development for each country, constructed by United Nations, combining income, literacy, education, and life expectancy
gross domestic product (GDP)
value of the total output of goods and services produced in a country, normally during a year 
primary sector
the portion of the economy concerned with the direct extraction of materials from Earth's surface, generally through agriculture, although sometimes by mining, fishery, and forestry
secondary sector
the portion of the economy concerned with manufacturing useful products through processing, transforming, and assembling raw materials
tertiary sector
the portion of the economy concerned with transportation, communication, and utilities, sometimes extended to the provision of all goods and services to people in exchange for payment
the value of a particular product compared to the amount of labor needed to make it
value added
the gross value of the product minus the costs of raw materials and energy
literacy rate
percentage of a country's people who can read and write
Gender-Related Development Index (GDI)
compares the level of development of women with that of both sexes
Gender Empowerment Measure (GDM)
compares the ability of women and men to participate in economic and political decision making
structural adjustment program
economic policies imposed on less developed countries by international agencies to create conditions encouraging international trade, such as raising taxes, reducing government spending, controlling inflation, selling publicly owned utilities to private corporations, and charging citizens more for services
fair trade
alternative to international trade that emphasizes small businesses and worker owned and democratically run cooperatives and requires employers to pay workers fair wages, permit union organizing, and comply with minimum environmental and safety standards
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