AP Human Geography Chapter 5

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a system of communication through speech, a collection of sounds that a group of people understands to have the same meaning
literary tradition
a system of written communication
official language
the language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents
a regional variation of a language distinguished by distinctive vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation
standard language
a dialect that is well established and widely recognized as the most acceptable for government, business, education, and mass communication
British Received Pronunciation (BRP)
the dialect of English associated with upper-class Britons living in the London area and now considered standard in the United Kingdom
a boundary that separates regions in which different language uses predominate
language family
a collection of languages related through a common ancestral language that existed long before recorded history
language branch
a collection of languages within a language family that are related through a common ancestral language that existed several thousand years ago
language group
a collection of languages within a language branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary
Vulgar Latin
a form of Latin used in daily conversation by ancient Romans, as opposed to the standard dialect, which was used for official documents
creole or creolized language
a language that results from the mixing of teh colonizer's language with the indigenous language of the people being dominated
written characters which represent ideas or concepts, not specific pronunciations
extinct languages
languages that are no longer spoken or read in daily activities by anyone in the world
isolated language
a language unrelated to any other and therefore not attached to any lanaguage family
lingua franca
a language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages
pidgin language
a form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca, used for communications among speakers of two different languages
dialect spoken by some African Americans
the widespread use of English in the French language
a combination of Spanish and English, spoken by Hispanic Americans
an artificial international language with a vocabulary based on word roots common to many European languages and a regularized system
the aspect of language concerned with letters and their sequences in words
trade language
a language, especially a pidgin, used by speakers of different native languages for communication in commercial trade
the standard native language of a country or locality

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