AP Human Geography Chapter 4

AP Human Geography Chapter 4 Vocabulary  
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habit
 
a repetitive act that a particular individual performs
custom
 
a repetitive act of a group, performed to the extent that it becomes characteristic of the group
folk culture
 
a set of customs traditionally practiced primarliy by small, homogenous groups living in isolated rural areas
popular culture
 
a set of customs found in large, heterogenous societies that share certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics
terroir
 
the contribution of a location's distinctive physical features to the way food tastes
taboo
 
a restriction on behavior imposed by social custom
acculturation
 
the exchange of cultural features that results when groups of individuals having different cultures come into continuous first-hand contact
assimilation
 
a process by which members of an ethnic minority group lose cultural characteristics that distinguish them from the dominant cultural group or take on the cultural characteristics of another group. mosbyMD()
artifact
 
a handmade object, as a tool, or the remains of one, characteristic of an earlier time or cultural stage, esp. such an object found at an archaeological excavation; any mass-produced, usually inexpensive object reflecting contemporary society or popular culture
built environment
 
human-made surroundings that provide the setting for human activity
core-domain-sphere model
 
The place where concentration of culture traits that characterizes a region is greatest.
cultural convergence
 
The tendency for cultures to become more alike as they increasingly share technology and organizational structures in a modern world united by improved transportation and communication.
cultural/enivronmental perception
 
The concept that people of different culture will definitely observe and interpret their environment and make different decision about its nature, potentiality and use.
cultural ecology
 
the branch of ecology that involves the study of the interaction of human societies with one another and with the natural environment.
cultural landscape
 
Modification to an environment by humans (including built environments and agricultural systems that reflects aspects of culture.)
culture realm
 
A collective of culture regions sharing related culture systems; a major world area having sufficient distinctiveness to be perceived as a set apart from other realms in terms of cultural characteristics and complexes.
culture region
 
A formal or functional region within which common cultural characteristics prevail.
culture hearth
 
A nuclear area within which an advanced and distinctive set of culture traits, ideas, and technologies develops and from which there is diffusion of those characteristics and the cultural landscape features they imply.
culture complex
 
A related set of culture traits descriptive of one aspect of a society's behavior or activity (may be associated with religious beliefs or business practices.)
culture trait
 
A single, distinguishing feature of regular occurrence within a culture, such as the use of chopsticks of the observance of a particular caste system. A single element of learned behavior
environmental determinism
 
A nineteenth- and early twentieth- century approach to the study of geography that argued that the general laws sought by human geographers could be found in the physical sciences. Geography was therefore the study of how the physical environment caused human activities.
material culture
 
The tangible, physical items produced and used by members of a specific culture group and reflective of their traditions, lifestyles and technologies.
mentifact
 
The central, enduring elements of a culture expressing its values and beliefs, including language, religion, folklore, and etc.
possiblism
 
The theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives.
sequent occupance
 
The succeeding stages of human inhabitation over time on one site
sociofact
 
The institutions and links between individuals and groups that unite a culture, including family structure and political, educational and religious institutions.
uniform landscape
 
How popular culture's landscape look the same
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