AP Human Geography Chapter 2

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the scientific study of population characteristics
the number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living
the portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement
arithmetic density
the total number of people divided by total land area
physiological density
the number of people supported by a unit of arable land
CBR (crude birth rate)
the total number of live births in a year for every 1000 people alive in the society
CDR (crude death rate)
the total number of deaths in a year for every 1000 people alive in the society
NIR (natural increase rate)
the percentage by which a population grows in a year
doubling time
the number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase
TFR (total fertility rate)
the average number of children a woman will have throughout her child-bearing years
IMR (infant mortality rate)
the annual number of deaths of infants under 1 year of age compared to live births
Life expectancy
the average number of yeras a newborn infant can expect to live at current mortality levels
agricultural revolution
when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering; around 8000 B.C.
industrial revolution
a conjunction of major improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods and delivering them to market; around 1750 A.D.
medical revolution
medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled people to live longer and healthier lives.
ZPG (zero population growth)
when the CBR declines to the point where it equals the CDR, and the NIR approaches zero
population pyramid
a bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex
sex ratio
the number of males per one hundred females
epidemiologic transition
distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition
the study of the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that affect large numbers of people
a disease that occurs over a wide geographic area

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