AP HUman Geography Chapter 13

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AP HUman Geography Chapter 13

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urbanized area
 
a central city plus its contiguous built-up suburbs
metropolitan statistical area (MSA)
 
In the United States, a central city of at least 50,000 population, the county within which the city is located, and adjacent counties meeting one of several tests indicating a functional connection to the city
micropolitan statistical areas
 
an urbanized area of between 10,000 and 50,000 inhabitants, the county in which it is found, and adjacent counties tied to the city
concentric zone model (Burgess)
 
a model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings
sector model (Hoyt)
 
a model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district
multiple nuclei model (Harris and Ullman)
 
a model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities
census tract
 
an area delineated by the U.S. Bureau of the Census for which statistics are published; in urbanized areas, census tracts correspond roughly to neighborhoods
squatter settlements
 
an area within a city in a less developed country in which people illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent and erect homemade stuctures
filtering
 
a process of change in the use of a house, from single-family owner occupancy to abandonment
redlining
 
a process by which banks draw lines on a map and refuse to lend money to purchase or improve property within the boundaries
urban renewal
 
program in which cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, acquire the properties from private owners, relocate the residents and businesses, clear the site, build new roads and utilities, and turn the land over to private developers
public housing
 
housing owned by the government; in the U.S., it is rented to residents with low incomes, and the rents are set at 30 percent of the families' incomes
gentrification
 
a process of converting an urban neighborhood from a predominantly low-income renter-occupied area to a predominantly middle-class and owner-occupied area
underclass
 
a group in society prevented from participating in the material benefits of a more developed society because of a variety of social and economic characteristics
annexation
 
legally adding land area to a ctiy in the United States
peripheral model
 
a mdoel of North American urban areas consisting of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road
edge cities
 
a large node of office and retail activities on the edge of an urban area
density gradient
 
the change in density in an urban area from the center to the periphery
sprawl
 
development of new housing sites at relatively low density and locations that are not contiguous to the existing built-up area
greenbelts
 
a ring of land maintained as parks, agriculture, or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area
zoning ordinance
 
a law that limits the permitted uses of land and maximum density of development in a community
rush hour
 
the four consecutive 15-minute periods in the morning and evening with the heaviest volumes of traffic
smart growth
 
legislation and regulations to limit suburban sprawl and preserve farmland
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