AP Human Geography Chapter 12

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a permanent collection of buildings where people reside, work, and obtain services
consumer services
businesses that provide services primarily to individual consumers, including retail services and education, health, and leisure services
business services
services that primarily meet the needs of other businesses, including professional, financial, and transportation services
public services
services offered by the government to provide security for citizens and businesses
clustered rural settlement
a rural settlement in which the houses and farm buildings of each family are situated close to each other and fields surround the settlement
dispersed rural settlement
a rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages
enclosure movement
the process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England during the eighteenth century
central place
a market center for the exchange of goods and services by people attracted from the surrounding area
central place theory
a theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel farther
the minimum number of people needed to support a service
market area
the area surrounding a service from which customers are attracted
another name for a market area
the maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service
gravity model
a model that holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people must travel to reach the service
rank-size rule
a pattern of settlements in a country, such as the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement
primate city rule
a pattern of settlements in a country, such as that the largest settlement has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement
primate city
the largest settlement in a country, if it has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement
a sovereign state comprising a city and its immediate hinterland
basic industries
industries that sell their products or services primarily to consumers outside the settlement
nonbasic industries
industries that sell their products primarily to consumers in the community
economic base
a community's unique collection of basic industries
central business district (CBD)
the area of a city where retail and office activities are clustered

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