AP Human Geography: Chapter 10: Urbanization

The Study Of The Physical Form And Structure Of Urban Places.
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(n.)- a built up area consisting of central city and its surrounding suburbs (similar to the term “urbanized area”, shows the extent of a city‟s influence)
(n.)- a neighborhood, usually a slum or lower class (many of the Latin American cities have these outside the central city)
Bid-rent Theory
explains that the price/demand for land increases closer to the CBD (explains the concentric zone model and why different levels of development are located at certain distances from the central city)
(v.)- the process of white families selling their homes because of fears that blacks would move in and lower the property value (explains the white flight of the 1950‟s and the growth of suburbs)
(n.)- stands for central business district, location of skyscrapers and companies (would always be the center of the 3 urban models, many people commute, few actually live there)
Census Tract
(n.)- these are govt. designated areas in cities that each have ~5,000 people, they often times correspond to neighborhoods (data in census tracts is used to analyze urban patterns such as gentrification or white flight)
(n.)- the strength of dominance of an urban center over its surrounding area, larger than the MSA or agglomeration (Twin Cities centrality extends up into northern MN, over into ND, SD, and western WI)
(n.)- the movement of people, capital, services, and govt. into the central city (opposite of suburban sprawl, happened to cities before WWII and is happening now)
Christaller, Walter
He created the Central Place Theory, which explains how services are distributed and why there are distinct patterns in this distribution (central place theory involves market area/hinterland and the threshold, which is the minimum number of customers needed to keep the business running)
(n.)- centralized area with a mayor and local government, usually bigger than a town (cities started in the Greek/Roman times, more and more people live in cities, especially in LDCs)
(n.)- similar to a landscape, yet of a city (cityscapes often show the city‟s skyline, which is the CBD).
Colonial City
(n.)- cities founded by colonial powers, such as Mexico City by the Spanish (these often contain plazas, large Catholic cathedrals, and historic architecture, most of these are in Latin America and in Southern Asia, in India)
(n.)- the process of the increasing importance of business (advertisements in cities, development leans toward services)
Concentric Zone Model
created by E.W. Burgess, city grows outwards from a central area (CBD in middle, then zone of transition, then zone of workers‟ homes, then zone of residences, then commuter‟s zone)
(n.)- a net migration from urban to rural areas (this only happens in very developed areas in North America and Western Europe)
(n.)- the process of dispersing decision-making outwards from the center of authority (We learned about how nation states break up and form their own political clouts)
(n.)- process of social and economic change caused by removal of industry. (We learned about how MDCs moved on after the 1800s.)
Early Cities
(n.)- Cities of the ancient world (-3500 to -1200) (We learned about how agriculture and language began in this era.
Economic Base
(n.)- Communities collection of basic industry (We learned about job sectors)
Edge City
(n.)- A new concentration of business in suburban areas consisting of suburbs (We learned about urban sprawl.)
Emerging Cities
(n.)- City currently without much population but increasing in size at a fast rate (learned about cities that are growing at a fast rate)
Employment Structure
(n.)- graph showing how primary secondary and tertiary sector jobs are separated.
(n.)- Trading center where goods are exported and imported without cost. (We learned about centers of trade.)
Ethnic Neighborhood
(n.)- A neighborhood with distinctive ethnic composition (We learned about segregation of cities into ethnic backgrounds.)
(n.)- A shantytown or slum, especially in Brazil (We learned about the slum conditions faced by Latin American countries.
Female-headed Household
(n.)- A household dominated by a woman (We learned about how MCDs have different family structure.)
Festival Landscape
(n.)- a landscape of cultural festivities (We learned about the culture.)
Gateway City
(n.)- a settlement which acts as a link between two areas. (We learned about primate cities, which are similar.)
(n.)- a person's sex (We learned about differences that occur as a result of gender.)
(n.)- process in which low cost neighborhoods are renovated by middle class to increase property values. (We learned about the positives and negatives of this process.)
(n.)- A usually poor section of a city inhabited primarily by people of the same race, religion, or social background. (We learned about the worst parts of cities.)
(n.)- Development of worldwide patterns of economic relationships (we learned about he future impact this will have.

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